Characters

Hiragana

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Katakana

katakana.png

Kanji

grade 1

kanji_one.png

1
一 hito ITI one
二 huta NI two
三 mi SAN three
四 yon SI four
五 itu GO five
六 mu ROKU six
七 nana SITI seven
八 ya HATI eight
九 kokono KYUU nine
十 too ZYUU ten
百 HYAKU hundred
千 ti SEN thousand
2
日 hi NITI day, sun, Japan
月 tuki GETU moon, month
火 hi KA fire
水 mizu SUI water
木 ki BOKU tree, wood
金 kane KIN metal, gold, money
土 tuti DO soil
3
上 ue ZYOU up
下 sita KA down
右 migi U right
左 hidari SA left
大 oo(kii) DAI big , university
中 naka TYUU middle, in, China
小 tii(sai) SYOU small
入 i(ru) NYUU enter, put in
出 de(ru) SYUTU go out, put out
4
男 otoko DAN man
女 onna JO woman
子 ko SI child, noun suffix
人 hito ZIN human being
口 kuti KOU mouth
目 me MOKU eye, item
手 te SYU hand, performer of an action
耳 mimi ZI ear
足 asi SOKU foot, suffice
5
白 siro HAKU white
赤 aka SEKI red
青 ao SEI blue
学 manu(bu) GAKU study, school
校 KOU school, proofread
先 saki SEN ahead
生 i(kiru) SEI life, be born, student
年 tosi NEN year
6
山 yama SAN mountain
川 kawa SEN river
花 hana KA flower
雨 ame U rain
田 ta DEN rice field
石 isi SEKI stone
貝 kai BAI shellfish
林 hayasi RIN forest
森 mori SIN thick woods
7
見 mi(ru) KEN see
立 ta(tu) RITU stand, establish
休 yasu(mu) KYOU rest
天 ame TEN heaven
気 KI gas, spirit
本 moto HON basis, book, this
犬 inu KEN dog
虫 musi TYUU insect
草 kusa SOU grass
8
車 kuruma SYA vehicle, wheel
名 na MEI name
正 tada(si) SEI right, correct
音 oto ON sound
早 haya(i) SOU early, quick
王 OU king
村 mura SON village
町 mati TYOU town
竹 take TIKU bamboo
9
空 sora KUU sky, air, empty
糸 ito SI thread
字 aza ZI character
夕 yuu SEKI evening
玉 tama GYOKU gem
文 fumi BUN writings, letter
力 tikara RYOKU power
円 maru(i) EN circle, yen

grade 2

joyo_grade2.png


引 hi(ku) IN draw, reduce
羽 ha(ne) U feather, wing
雲 kumo UN cloud
園 sono EN garden
遠 too(i) EN distant
何 nani KA what, how many
科 KA subject of study
夏 natu KA summer
家 ie KA house, family
歌 uta KA song, japanese poem
画 GA picture, draw up a plan
回 mawa(ru) KAI turn round, time
会 a(u) KAI meet, society
海 umi KAI sea
絵 KAI picture
外 soto GAI outside
角 kado KAKU angle, horn
楽 tano(sii) GAKU pleasure, comfortable, music


活 KATU active, live
間 aida KAN space in between
丸 maru GAN round
岩 iwa GAN rock
顔 kao GAN face
汽 KI steam
記 siru(su) KI write down
帰 kae(ru) KI return
弓 yumi KYUU bow (archery)
牛 usi GYUU cow
魚 uo GYO fish
京 KYOU capital, Tokyo, Kyoto
強 tuyo(i) KYOU strong
教 osi(eru) KYOU teach, religion
近 tika(i) KIN near, recent
兄 oni KEI older brother
形 kata KEI shape
計 haka(ru) KEI plan, compute


元 moto GEN origin
言 i(u) GEN say, speech
原 hara GEN plain, original
戸 to KO door, household
古 huru(i) KO old
午 GO noon, sign of the horse
後 noti GO after
語 kata(ru) GO word, language, tell
工 KOU manufacture, construction
公 ooyake KOU public
広 hiro(i) KOU wide
交 mizi(waru) KOU intercourse, cross
光 hika(ru) KOU light
考 kanga(eru) KOU think
行 i(ku) KOU go, act, line
高 taka(i) KOU high, amount
黄 ki KOU yellow
合 a(u) GOU combine, fit


谷 tani KOKU valley
国 kuni KOKU country
黒 kuro KOKU black
今 ima KON present, this
才 SAI talent, years old
細 hoso(i) SAI slender, minute
作 tuku(ru) SAKU make, work
算 SAN calculate
止 to(maru) SI stop
市 iti SI city, market
矢 ya SI arrow
姉 one SI older sister
思 omo(u) SI think
紙 kami SI paper
寺 tera ZI Buddhist temple
自 mizuka(ru) ZI self
時 toki ZI time
室 muru SITU room


社 yasiro SYA company, society, Shinto shrine
弱 yowa(i) SYAKU weak
首 kubi SYU head, neck, leader
秋 aki SYUU autumn
週 SYUU week
春 haru SYUN spring
書 ka(ku) SYO write
少 suku(nai) suko(si) SYO few
場 ba SYOU place
色 iro SYOKU color, eros
食 kuu ta(beru) SYOKU eat, food
心 kokoro SIN mind, heart
新 atara(si) SIN new
親 oya SIN parent, relatives, intimate
図 e ZU drawing
数 kazu SOU number
西 nisi SEI west, Spain
声 koe SEI voice


星 hosi SEI star
晴 ha(reru) SEI clear sky
切 ki(ru) SETU cut
雪 yuki SETU snow
船 hune SEN ship
線 suzi SEN line
前 mae ZEN in front, before
組 ku(mu) SO organize, assemble
走 hasi(ru) SOU run
多 oo(i) TA multi-
太 huto(i) TAI great, thick
体 karada TAI body
台 DAI stand, pedestal
地 TI ground, place
池 ike TI pond
知 si(ru) TI wisdom
茶 TYA tea
昼 hiru TYUU daytime


長 naga(i) TYOU long, chief
鳥 tori TYOU bird
朝 asa TYOU morning, dynasty
直 tada(tini) TYOKU straight, put straight
通 too(ru) TUU pass (through), communicate
弟 otouto TEI younger brother
店 mise TEN store, shop
点 tuke(ru) TEN spot, mark
電 DEN electricity
刀 katana TOU sword
冬 fuyu TOU winter
当 ata(ru) TOU the present, hit
東 higasi TOU east
答 kota(eru) TOU answer
頭 atama TOU head
同 ona(zi) DOU same
道 miti DOU way
読 yomu DOKU read


内 uti NAI inside
南 minami NAN south
肉 NIKU flesh
馬 uma BA horse
売 uru GAI sell
買 ka(u) BAI buy
麦 mugi BAKU wheat
半 naka(ba) HAN half
番 tuga(i) BAN turn, number
父 titi HU father
風 kase FUU wind, breeze
分 wakeru BUN part, understand
聞 ki(ku) BUN hear
米 kono BEI meter, rice, USA
歩 aru(ku) HO walk
母 haha BO mother
方 kata HOU direction, way
北 kita HOKU north


毎 -goto MAI every
妹 imooto MAI younger sister
万 yorozu MAN ten thousand
明 o(kari) MEI bright, clear
鳴 na(ku) MEI cry, sound
毛 ke MOU hair
門 kado MON gate
夜 yo YA night
野 no YA field, wild
友 tomo(dati) YUU friend
用 moti(iru) YOU employ, things to do
曜 YOU day of the week
来 ku(ru) RAI come
里 sato RI village, league, ri (3.9 km)
理 kotowari RI reason, basic principle, manage
話 hana(su) WA speak

grade 3

grade3_kanji.jpg


悪 waru(i) AKU bad
安 yasu(i) AN cheap
暗 kura(i) AN dark
医 i(yasu) I medicine, doctor
委 yuda(neru) I commit
意 I mind, meaning
育 soda(tu) IKU raise
員 IN member
院 IN institution
飲 no(mu) IN drink
運 hako(bu) UN carry, move, fortune
泳 oyo(gu) EI swim
駅 EKI station
央 OU center
横 yoko OU sideways, arbitrary
屋 ya OKU house, small shop
温 otata(ka) ON warm
化 ba(keru) KA change into
荷 ni KA load
界 KAI world, bounds
開 hira(ku) KAI open


階 KAI floor, story
寒 samu(i) KAN cold
感 KAN sense, feel
漢 KAN Chinese, fellow
館 yakata KAN public building
岸 kisi KAN shore
起 o(kiru) KI rise
期 KI term, expect
客 KYAKU visitor, customer
究 KYUU kiwa(meru) study exhaustively
急 KYUU iso(gu) urgent, hurry, sudden
級 KYUU grade
宮 KYUU miya royal palace, Shinto shrine
球 KYUU tama ball
去 KYO sa(ru) go away
橋 hasi KYOU bridge
業 GYOU work, business, industry
曲 ma(garu) KYOU musical composition, curve
局 KYOKU bureau, limited part
銀 GIN silver
区 KU divide into sections, district, ward


苦 kuru(sii) KU suffering, bitter
具 GU implement
君 kimi KUN ruler, familiar title, you
係 kaka(ru) KEI connect, person in charge
軽 karu(i) KEI light (i.e. not heavy)
血 ti KETU blood
決 ki(meru) KETU decide
研 to(gu) KEN grind, research
県 KEN prefecture
庫 KO storage chamber
湖 mizuumi KO lake
向 mu(ku) KOU turn toward
幸 siawa(se) KOU good fortune, happiness
港 minato KOU port
号 sake(bu) GOU number, designation, sign
根 ne KON root
祭 matu(ru) SAI festival
皿 sara plate
仕 tuka(eru) SI serve, do
死 si(ne) SI die
使 tuka(u) SI use


始 hazi(meru) SI begin
指 yubi sa(su) SI finger, point
歯 ha SI tooth
詩 SI poetry
次 tugi ZI next
事 koto ZI thing, matter
持 mo(tu) ZI hold
式 SIKI style, ceremony
実 mino(ru) ZITU real
写 utu(su) SYA copy
者 mono SYA person
主 nesi SYU main, lord
守 mamo(ru) SYU protect
取 to(ru) SYU take
酒 sake SYU alcoholic drink
受 u(keru) ZYU receive
州 SYUU state
拾 hiro(u) SYUU pick up
終 o(waru) SYUU end
習 nara(u) SYUU learn, custom
集 atu(maru) SYUU gather


住 su(mu) ZYUU live
重 omo(i) ZYUU heavy, duplicate
宿 yado SYUKU lodge
所 tokoro SYO place, particle of nominalization
暑 atu(i) SYO hot
助 tasu(keru) ZYO help
昭 SYOU invite
消 ki(eru) SYOU extinguish, spend
商 okina(u) SYOU trade
章 SYOU chapter, badge
勝 ka(tu) SYOU win, excel
乗 no(ru) ZYOU ride, get on
植 u(eru) SYOKU plant
申 mou(su) SIN report, speak humbly
神 kami SIN god, mind
身 mi SIN body, one's person
真 ma SIN true, reality
深 huka(i) SIN deep
進 susu(mu) SIN advance
世 yo SEI world, age
整 totono(eru) SEI put in order


昔 mukasi SEKI former times
全 matta(ku) ZEN whole
相 ai SOU phase, mutual, minister
送 oku(ru) SOU send
想 SOU conceive
息 iki SOKU breath
速 haya(i) SOKU quick
族 ZOKU family
他 hoka TA other
打 u(tu) DA strike
対 aite TAI opposite, oppose
待 TAI ma(tu) wait
代 ka(waru) DAI substitute, generation, charge
第 DAI ordinal number prefix
題 DAI title, topic, problem
炭 sumi TAN coal, charcoal
短 mizika(i) TAN short
談 DAN talk
着 ki(ru) TYAKU put on , arrive, stick
注 soso(gu) TYUU pour, concentrate
柱 hasira TYOU pillar


丁 hinoto TYOU town subsection, miscellaneous counter
帳 TYOU notebook
調 sira(beru) TYOU tone, investigate, prepare
追 o(u) TUI chase
定 sada(meru) TEI fix
庭 niwa TEI courtyard, garden
笛 hue TEKI flute
鉄 kurogane TETU iron
転 koro(garu) TEN turn
都 miyako TO metropolis (of Tokyo)
度 tabi DO degree, time
投 na(geru) TOU throw, send in
豆 mame TOU bean
島 sima TOU island
湯 yu TOU hot water
登 nobo(ru) TOU climb
等 hito(sii) TOU equal, class
動 ugo(ku) DOU move
童 DOU child
農 NOU farming
波 nami HA wave


配 kuba(ru) HAI distribute
倍 BAI times, double
箱 hako box
畑 hata field
発 ta(tu) HATU start, emit, open up
反 so(ru) HAN counter
坂 saka HAN slope
板 ita HAN board, plate
皮 kawa HI skin
悲 kana(sii) HI sad
美 utuku(sii) BI beautiful
鼻 hana BI nose
筆 hude HITU brush, writing
氷 koori HYOU ice
表 omote HYOU express, surface, table
秒 BYOU second
病 ya(mu) BYOU illness
品 sina HIN article; grade of excellence; classification
負 ma(keru) HU bear, lose
部 -be BU section, department, part
服 HUKU clothes, submit


福 HUKU fortune
物 mono BUTU thing
平 tai(ra) HEI flat, calm
返 kae(su) HIN return
勉 tuto(meru) BEN endeavor
放 hana(tu) HOU let go
味 azi MI taste
命 inoti MEI order, life
面 omo MEN face
問 to(u) MON question
没 BOTU sink
薬 kusuri YAKU drug
由 YUU reason
油 abura YU oil
有 a(ru) YUU have
遊 aso(bu) YUU play
予 YO in advance
羊 hituzi YOU sheep
洋 YOU ocean, western
葉 ha YOU leaf
陽 hi YOU sun


様 sama YOU mode, formal title
落 o(tiru) o(tosu) RAKU fall
流 naga(reru) RYUU flow, current, style
旅 tabi RYO travel
両 RYOU both
緑 midori RYOKU green
礼 REI etiquette, rite
列 RETU row
練 ne(ru) REN train
路 RO road
和 yawa(ragu) WA harmonious, peace, Japan

grade 4

kanji_4.png


愛 ito(sii) AI love
案 AN proposal
以 mot(te) I to the ... of, by means of
衣 koromo I garment
位 kurai I rank, position
囲 kako(mu) I enclose
胃 I stomach
印 sirusi IN mark, seal
英 hanabusa EI distinguished, England
栄 saka(eru) EI flourish, glory
塩 sio EN salt
億 OKU hundred million
加 kuwa(eru) KA add
果 ha(tasu) KA fruit
貨 takara KA money, goods
課 KA section, lesson
芽 me GA bud
改 arata(meru) KAI reform
械 KAI mechanical contrivance
害 GAI harm


街 mati GAI city quarter
各 onoono KAKU each
覚 obo(eru) KAKU perceive, commit to memory
完 KAN complete
官 KAN government, government official
管 kuda KAN pipe, exercise control
関 kaka(waru) KAN concern, barrier
観 KAN view
願 nega(u) GAN wish, ask a favor
希 KI raise, apsire
季 KI season
紀 KI era
喜 KI yoroko(bu) happy
旗 hata KI flag
器 utuwa KI vessel, instrument
機 hata KI machine, aircraft, opportunity
議 GI discuss, legislative body
求 moto(meru) KYUU seek
泣 na(ku) KYUU cry
救 suku(u) KYUU save


給 KYUU supply, pay
挙 a(geru) KYO nominate, noteworthy act, raise
漁 GYO fish
共 tomo KYOU joint
協 KYOU cooperate
鏡 kagami KYOU mirror, optical intstrument
競 kiso(u) KYOU compete
極 kiwa(meru) KYAKU extreme, pole
訓 KUN instruct
軍 GUN army
郡 GUN county
経 KEI path, diameter
型 kata KEI type
景 KEI scene
芸 GEI art
欠 ka(keru) KETU lack
結 musu(bu) KETU marriage
建 ta(teru) KEN build
健 suko(yaka) KEN robust
験 KEN test


固 kata(meru) KO solid, firm
功 KOU merit
好 kono(mu) KOU like, favorable
候 KOU season, seasonable weather
航 KOU navigate
康 KOU healthy
告 tu(geru) KOKU notify
差 sa(su) SA difference
菜 na SAI vegetable
最 motto(mo) SAI most
材 ZAI timber, material
昨 SAKU yesterday, last
札 huda SATU note, paper money
刷 su(ru) SATU print
殺 koro(su) SATU kill
察 SATU inspect, guess
参 mai(ru) SAN participate, visit a holy place
産 u(mu) SAN give birth, produce
散 ti(ru) SAN scatter
残 noko(ru) ZAN remain, ruthless


士 SI military man, man of learning
氏 uzi SI family, courtesy title
史 SI history
司 SI officiate
試 tame(su) SI try
児 ZI child
治 osa(meru) ZI govern, cure
辞 ya(meru) ZI word, resign
失 usina(u) SITU lose, slip
借 ka(riru) SYAKU borrow
種 tane SYU variety, seed
周 mawa(ri) SYUU periphery
祝 iwa(u) SYUKU celebrate, congratulate
順 ZYUN order, obey
初 hazi(mete) SYO first
松 matu SYOU pine
笑 wara(u) SYOU laugh
唱 tona(eru) SYOU sing
焼 ya(ku) SYOU burn
象 SYOU phenomenon, elephant


照 te(rasu) SYOU illuminate
賞 ho(meru) SYOU prize
臣 ZIN retainer
信 SIN believe, message
成 na(ru) SEI become, achieve
省 kaeri(miru) SYOU ministry, save, introspect
清 kiyo(i) SEI clear
静 sizu(ka) SEI quiet
席 SEKI seat
積 tu(mu) SEKI accumulate
折 o(ru) SETU break off, fold
節 husi SETU joint, season
説 to(ku) SETU explain, theory
浅 asa(i) SEN shallow
戦 ikusa SEN war
選 era(bu) SEN choose
然 ZEN modifier forming suffix, so
争 araso(u) SOU contend
倉 kura SOU storehouse
巣 su SOU nest


束 taba SOKU tie up, bundle
側 gawa SOKU side
続 tuzu(ku) ZOKU continue
卒 SOTU graduate
孫 mago SON grandchild
帯 obi TAI belt, wear
隊 TAI party
達 TATU attain
単 TAN single
置 o(ku) TI place
仲 naka TYUU intermediary, personal relations
貯 TYO lay up
兆 kiza(si) TYOU omen, trillion
腸 TYOU intestines
低 hiku(i) TEI low
底 soko TEI bottom
停 TEI halt
的 mato TEKI target, adjectival suffix
典 TEN standard work, canon
伝 tuta(waru) DEN transmit


徒 TO follower
努 tuto(meru) DO exert
灯 hi TOU lamp
堂 DOU hall
働 hatara(ku) DOU work
特 TOKU special
得 e(ru) TOKU acquire, gain
毒 DOKU poison
熱 atu(i) NETU heat, hot
念 NEN thoughts
敗 yabur(reru) HAI be defeated
梅 ume BAI japanese apricot
博 HAKU doctor
飯 mesi HAN cooked rice, meal
飛 to(bu) HI fly
費 tui(yasu) HI expense
必 kanara(zu) HITU without fail
票 HYOU vote, slip
標 HYOU mark
不 HU not


夫 otto HU husband, male laborer
付 tu(keru) HU attach
府 HU urban prefecture
副 HUKU secondary
粉 ko HUN powder
兵 HEI soldier
別 waka(reru) BETU separate, another
辺 ata(ri) HEN vicinity, borderland
変 kawa(ru) HEN change, abnormal
便 tayo(ri) BEN convenient, post, excreta
包 tutu(mu) HOU wrap, encompass
法 HOU law, method
望 nozo(mu) BOU hope, look afar
牧 maki BOKU pasture
末 sue MATU last part
満 miti(ru) MAN full
未 MI not yet
脈 MYAKU vein, pulse
無 na(i) MU without, nothing
民 tami MIN people


約 tuzu(maru) YAKU promise, shorten, approximately
勇 isa(mu) YUU brave
要 i(ru) YOU important, summarize, require
養 yasina(u) YOU foster
浴 a(biru) YOKU bathe
利 ki(ku) RI advantage, profit
陸 RIKU land
良 yo(i) RYOU good
料 RYOU fee, materials
量 haka(ru) RYOU quantity
輪 wa RIN wheel, ring
類 tagu(i) RUI kind
令 REI command
冷 tume(tai) REI cold
例 tato(eru) REI example
歴 REKI personal history
連 tu(reru) REN link, in succession
老 o(iru) ROU old
労 ROU labor
録 ROKU record

grade 5

kanji_grade_5.png


圧 ATU pressure
移 utu(ru) I shift
因 yo(ru) IN cause
永 naga(i) EI eternal
営 itona(mu) EI manage, barracks
衛 EI guard
易 yasa(sii) EKI easy, exchange
益 EKI benefit, profit
液 EKI liquid
演 EN perform
応 kota(eru) OU respond
往 OU go on
桜 sakura OU cherry
恩 ON grace, debt of gratitude
可 -geki KA possible, approve
仮 kari KA temporary
価 atai KA price, value
河 kawa KA river
過 su(giru) KA pass by, exceed


賀 GA congratulate
快 kokoroyo(i) KAI pleasant
解 to(ku) KAI take apart, dissolve, clarify
格 KAKU norm, status
確 tasi(ka) KAKU certain
額 hitai GAKU amount
刊 KAN publish
幹 miki KAN trunk
慣 na(reru) KAN habitual practice
眼 manako GAN eye
基 moto KI base
寄 yo(ru) KI contribute, draw near
規 KI regulation
技 waza GI skill
義 GI righteousness, meaning
逆 saka(rau) GYAKU reverse
久 hi(sasii) KYUU of long duration
旧 KYUU former
居 i(ru) KYO reside


許 yuru(su) KYO permit
境 sakai KYOU boundary, situation
均 KIN even
禁 KIN prohibit
句 KU phrase, haiku
群 mu(re) GUN group
経 ta(tu) KEI pass through, manage
潔 isagiyo(i) KETU immaculate
件 KEN matter
券 KEN ticket, certificate
険 kewa(sii) KEN danger, steep
検 KEN examine
限 kagi(ru) KEN limit
現 arawa(reru) GEN actual, appear
減 he(ru) GEN decrease
故 yue KO old, the late
個 KO individual, general, counter
護 GO protect
効 ki(ku) KOU effect


厚 atu(i) KOU thick, kind
耕 tagaya(su) KOU till
鉱 KOU ore, mine
構 kama(eru) KOU construct, mind
興 oko(ru) KYOU rise to prosperity, amusement
講 KOU lecture
混 ma(zeru) KON mix
査 SA look into
再 hutata(bi) SAI another time
災 wazawa(i) SAI natural calamity
妻 tuma SAI wife
採 to(ru) SAI pick, gather
際 kiwa SAI verge, occasion
在 a(ru) ZAI be
財 ZAI wealth
罪 tumi ZAI crime
雑 ZATU miscellaneous, mixed
酸 su(i) SAN acid, oxygen
賛 SAN approve of, praise


支 sasa(eru) SI branch, support
志 kokorozasi SI ambition
枝 eda SI branch
師 SI master
資 SI resources
飼 ka(u) SI raise animals
示 sime(su) ZI show
似 ni(ru) ZI resemble
識 SIKI discriminate, knowledge
質 SITU quality, matter
舎 SYA building
謝 ayama(ru) SYA thank, apologize
授 sazu(keru) ZYU confer
修 osa(meru) SYUU cultivate, repair
述 no(beru) ZYUTU state
術 sugu ZYUTU practical art
準 ZYUN standard, quasi-
序 ZYO introductory part, order
招 mane(ku) SYOU invite

承 uketamawa(ru) SYOU agree to
証 SYOU prove, certificate
条 ZYOU article
状 ZYOU form, condition, letter
常 tune ZYOU normal, regular
情 nasa(ke) ZYOU emotion, actual conditions
織 o(ru) SIKI weave
職 SYOKU employment
制 SEI system, control
性 SEI nature, sex, –ity
政 maturigoto SEI political administration
勢 ikio(i) SEI power
精 SEI refine, essence, spirit
製 SEI manufacture
税 ZEI tax
責 se(meru) SEKI responsibility, blame
績 SEKI achievements
接 SETU contact
設 mou(keru) SETU set up


舌 sita ZETU tongue
絶 tae(ru) ZETU break off, come to an end
銭 zeni SEN money
祖 SO ancestor
素 SU element, plain
総 SOU total, general
造 tuku(ru) ZOU make
像 ZOU image
増 hu(eru) ZOU increase
則 SOKU rule
測 haka(ru) SOKU measure, conjecture
属 ZOKU belong to
率 hiki(iru) RITU rate, lead
損 soko(nau) SON loss
退 sirizo(ku) TAI retreat
貸 ka(su) TAI lend
態 TAI state
団 katamari DAN collective
断 kotowa(ru) DAN cut off, resolve


築 kizu(ku) TIKU construct
張 ha(ru) TYOU spread, strain
提 TEI present
程 hodo TEI extend, established form
適 TEKI suitable
敵 kataki TEKI enemy
統 TOU unite, interconnected system
銅 DOU copper
導 mitibi(ku) DOU guide
徳 TOKU virtue
独 hito(ri) DOKU alone, Germany
任 maka(seru) NIN office, leave to
燃 mo(eru) NEN burn
能 NOU ability
破 yabu(ru) HA break
犯 oka(su) HAN offense
判 HAN judge
版 HAN printing plate, publishing
比 kura(beru) HI compare


肥 HI fatten
非 HI is not
備 sona(eru) BI provide
俵 tawara HYOU straw sack
評 HYOU comment
貧 mazu(sii) HIN poor
布 nuno HU cloth, spread
婦 HU adult woman
富 to(mu) HU rich
武 BU military
復 HUKU return to
複 HUKU compound
仏 hotoke BUTU Buddha, France
編 a(mu) HEN compile, knit
弁 BEN speak eloquently, valve
保 tamo(tu) HO preserve
墓 haka BO grave
報 muku(u) HOU inform, requite
豊 yuta(ka) HOU plentiful


防 huse(gu) BOU prevent
貿 BOU trade
暴 aba(ku) BOU violent
務 tuto(meru) MU duty
夢 yume MU dream
迷 mayo(u) MEI perplexed
綿 wata MEN cotton
輸 YU transport
余 ama(ri) YO remaining, excess
預 azu(keru) YO deposit
容 YOU appearance, contain
略 RYAKU abridged, strategy
留 to(maru) RYUU keep, stay
領 RYOU territory

grade 6

kanji_grade_6.gif


灰 hai KAI ash
吸 su(u) KYUU suck, breathe in
厳 kibi(sii) GEN severe
砂 suna SA sand
捨 su(teru) SYA discard
諸 SYO various
宣 SEN proclaim
尊 tatto(i) SON honor
痛 ita(i) TUU pain
肺 HAI lung
訪 otozu(reru) HOU visit
乱 mida(reru) RAN disordered
胸 mune KYOU chest
后 KOU empress
若 waka(i) ZYAKU young
城 siro ZYOU castle
担 nina(u) TAN bear on shoulder, undertake
届 todo(ku) deliver, reach
忘 wasu(reru) BOU forget
望 nozo(mu) RIN be present at


我 ware GA self
疑 utaga(u) GI doubt
絹 kinu KEN silk
困 koma(ru) KON be in trouble
射 i(ru) SYA shoot
署 SYO public-service station
誠 makoto SEI sincerity
存 SON exist
賃 TIN wage, charges
背 se HAI back
宝 takara HOU treasure
翌 YOKU the following
供 sona(eru) KYOU offer
誤 ayama(ru) GO mistake
尺 SHAKU shaku (30.3 cm)
障 sawa(ru) SYOU hindrance
宅 TAKU dwelling house
討 u(tu) TOU study, suppress by armed force
亡 na(i) BOU decease
律 RITU law, rhythm


沿 so(u) EN along
貴 tatto(i) KI noble, your honorable
権 KEN right, power
骨 hone KOTU bone
磁 ZI magnetism
処 SYO deal with
聖 SEI holy, saint
蔵 kura ZOU store
頂 itada(ku) TYOU summit, receive humbly
拝 oga(mu) HAI worship, humbly
暮 kura(su) BO dusk, live
欲 ho(sii) YOKU desire
巻 ma(ku) KAN roll up, volume
敬 uyama(u) KEI respect
孝 KOU filial piety
就 tu(ku) SYOU set about
蒸 mu(su) ZYOU steam, evaporate
段 DAN step
難 kata(i) NAN difficult, disaster, fault
密 MITU close, secret


延 noba(su) EN extend, postpone
机 tukue KI desk
憲 KEN constitution
穀 KOKU cereal
誌 SI magazine
純 ZYUN pure
盛 saka(ru) SEI prosperous
臓 ZOU internal organ
潮 sio TYOU tide
俳 HAI haiku
補 ogina(u) HO supplement
幼 osana(i) YOU very young
株 kabu stock
筋 suzi KIN muscle, threadlike structure
蚕 kaiko SAN silkworm
宗 SYUU religious sect
創 tuku(ru) SOU create
暖 atata(kai) DAN warm
腹 hara HUKU belly
幕 MAKU curtain, shogunate


映 uturu EI reflect, project
揮 KI wield
穴 ana KETU hole
刻 kiza(mu) KOKU engrave, point of time
詞 SI words
熱 atu(i) NETU hot
寸 SUN a bit of, sun (3.03cm)
装 yosoo(u) SOU dress, fit out
庁 TYOU government agency
派 HA sect, dispatch
片 kata HEN fragment, one of two
郵 YUU mail
割 wa(ru) KATU divide
勤 tuto(meru) KIN service
冊 SATU counter for books
収 osa(meru) SYUU take in
善 yo(i) ZEN good
誕 TAN be born
秘 hi(meru) HI secret
枚 MAI counter for flat things


宇 U universe
危 abu(nai) KI dangerous
激 hage(sii) GEKI violent
降 o(riru) KOU descend
視 SI regard
縮 tidi(meru) SYUKU shrink
推 o(su) SUI infer
窓 mado SOU window
著 itiziru(sii) TYO author, conspicuous
脳 NOU brain
陛 HEI imperial palace steps
優 yasa(sii) YUU superior, actor
革 kawa KAKU leather, reform
郷 KYOU hometown
策 SAKU scheme, measure
樹 ZYU standing tree
染 so(meru) SEN dye
探 saga(su) TAN probe, search
批 HI criticize
棒 BOU rod


域 IKI bounded area
簡 KAN simple
劇 GEKI drama
鋼 hagane KOU steel
至 ita(ru) SI come to
縦 tate ZYUU vertical
垂 ta(reru) SUI hang down
操 oyatu(ru) SOU manipulate
忠 TYUU loyalty
納 osa(meru) NATU pay, accept, put away
閉 tozi(ru) HEI close
訳 wake YAKU translate, sense
閣 KAKU tall magnificent building, cabinet
己 onore KO oneself
裁 saba(ku) SAI cut out, judge
将 SYOU general officer
洗 ara(u) SEN wash
糖 TOU sugar
否 ina HI say no, or not
裏 ura RI rear


遺 I leave behind
看 KAN watch, care for
警 KEI guard against, warn
紅 beni KOU crimson
私 watasi SI private, I
従 sitaga(u) ZYUU follow
仁 ZIN benevolence
層 SOU stratum
宙 TYUU space, midair
認 mito(meru) NIN recognize
並 nara(beru) HEI line up
模 MO pattern
拡 KAKU enlarge
呼 yo(bu) KO call
済 su(mu) SAI settle, relieve
傷 kizu SYOU wound
泉 izumi SEN spring
党 TOU party
晩 BAN evening
覧 RAN look over


異 koto(naru) I different
干 ho(su) KAN dry
系 KEI system, lineage
皇 KOU emperor
姿 sugata SI figure
衆 SYUU multitude
針 hari SIN needle
奏 kana(deru) SOU play music
値 ne TI value
乳 titi NYUU milk
奮 huru(u) HUN rouse up
盟 MEI alliance
論 RON argue, theory
源 minamoto GEN source
座 suwa(ru) ZA seat, sit
除 nozo(ku) ZYO rid of
専 SEN exclusive
展 TEN unfold, display
班 HAN squad
卵 tamago RAN egg

Romaji ローマ字

There are two popular methods of writing Japanese with Latin characters:

Hiragana Kunrei Hepburn
きょう kyô kyō
si shi
しょ syo sho
zi ji
じょ zyo jo
ti chi
ちょ tyo cho
di ji
ぢょ dyo jo
hu fu

The Hepburn system is named after an American missionary who published a Japanese-to-English dictionary in 1886. The Kunrei system was adopted by government order in 1937.

Hepburn is better at communicating to English speakers how a Japanese word is pronounced. Kunrei maps nicely to the Japanese syllabaries and is natural to Japanese speakers. Kunrei is documented as the ISO 3602 standard.

Input Methods

Mac

There is a Japanese input method on the Mac. On my laptop it is configured like this:

japanese-preferences.png

It make two input modes available: a hiragana mode and a katakana mode. The hiragana mode is used more often.

In hiragana mode, type using romaji and it will be converted to hiragana. If the live conversion feature is selected the text will sometimes be converted yet again to kanji or katakana. Use the RETURN key to accept the conversion and the SPACE key to bring up a dropdown of alternate conversions. The dropdown may come up in any case.

The input method uses a style of romanization called wapuro (i.e. word processor) romaji.

For consonsants one can use Kunrei or Hepburn spellings with exceptions.

For long vowels, type the vowel twice, e.g. tyuugoku or chuugoku instead of tyūgoku or chûgoku. In Japanese, long e can be spelled either ee or ei even though they are pronounced the same. Similarly long o can be spelled either oo or ou. For the benefit of the input method you must use the correct spelling.

In katakana long vowels are written with a dash and one must type a dash when using the input method.

The particles は, へ, and を are pronounced wa, e, and o, although they are spelled as if they were pronounced ha, he, and wo. The spellings and not the pronunciations are used when inputting them. The を character is only used for the particle since the syllable wo doesn't occur in modern Japanese.

Japanese writes geminate consonants by preceding them with a small っ or ッ. One can input these characters by typing xtu and in general one makes any character small by prefixing it with x. One can also input a geminate consonant by typing the consonant twice.

One may encounter difficulties typing a syllabic n: ん, say because it precedes a vowel. One can type n twice to force a syllabic n.

ぢ and じ are pronounced the same and both are transcribed as zi in Kunrei. Similarly づ and ず are pronounced the same and transcribed as zu in Kunrei.

ぢ and づ are the rarer versions. They are are used when a ち or つ mora is voiced due to rendaku. Type di or du to input them. The are examples that don't appear to be a result of rendaku, however. For example 続く tuduku (to continue, to go on).

Marks and Punctuation

symbol mac Japanese name English name use
ga 濁点, dakuten, nigori voicing mark voiced consonants
pa 半濁点, handakuten, maru half voicing mark unvoiced labial consonant (i.e.. p)
- 長音符, tyoonpu dash long vowels in katakana
xtu 促音, sokuon geminate consonants
同の字点、doonoziten, のま repetition symbol doubled kanji
スペース space start of paragraph
. 句点, kuten period end of sentence
, 読点, toten comma end of clause in sentence
~ nami dasshu wave dash between limits of a range
⌥; riidaa, tensen, tenten ellipsis omissions
/ 中黒, nakaguro raised dot, interpunct separate words in katakana
\ 円, en yen Japanese currency
「」 [] kagikakko single quotes quoting
『』 {} ijūkagikakko double quotes quoting
{} ⌥{
⌥}
波括弧, namikakko curly braces grouping
() () 丸括弧, marukakko parens grouping
[] ⌥[
⌥]
角括弧, kakukakko square brackets grouping
【】 ⌥9
⌥0
隅付き括弧, sumitsukikakko lenticular brackets grouping
komezirusi 米印, komezirusi reference mark start of parenthetical remark

Many Japanese punctuation characters resemble European punctuation and in fact they were borrowed from European languages in the 19th century. The Japanese punctuation characters have different Unicode characters, however, since they are full-width.

There is also a full-width space character, but it is used sparingly. A common use is to indent the first line of a paragraph. Words are usually not separated by spaces. When foreign words are written in katakana, the interpunct ・may be used to separate words. In particular the interpunct is often used between a foreigner's first and last name.

The use of the comma and period is similar to their use in English. Occasionally a question mark or exclamation mark will be used in the same manner as in English. Questions are usually terminated by the particle か and a period, however. Similarly an emphatic sentence is often terminated by the particle よ and a period.

In furigana dictionaries, the headwords are written in kana. If the word is normally written with kanji, this spelling follows inside lenticular brackets.

Fullwidth Latin and Halfwidth Katakana

UFF00.png

There are separate Unicode points for fullwidth Latin characters. Moreover, the Mac Japanese input method provides a mode for inputting them, and Hiragana input method includes them as options when a single Latin character is typed along with the normal width Latin character in the dropdown.

They can be used to intersperse Latin characters among Kanji without throwing off the alignment, since Kanji have constant width. However, in Japanese documents today there does not appear to be a strict rule that fullwidth Latin characters must be used, however. They are used more often for initialisms, frequently for numbers, and less often when foreign names and words are written with Latin characters.

When Japanese must be written with very few characters, Katakana is used. An early example is Wabun code, which represents Katakana as dots and dashes suitable for trasmission by telegraph. In the early computer era, JIS X 0201 was used to fit the Katakana characters with the Latin characters into an 8 bit character encoding.

When Japanese is written entirely in Katakana, it is customary to use halfwidth Katakana, and one still sees this today on cash register displays and shopping receipts. Shift JIS and later Unicode reserve separate code points for halfwidth Katakana.

Numbers

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
100
1000
一万 10,000
一万三千六百 13,600
十万 100,000
百万 1,000,000
一千万 10,000,000
一億 100,000,000
十億 1,000,000,000
百億 10,000,000,000
一千億 100,000,000,000
一兆 1,000,000,000,000
十兆 10,000,000,000,000

Positive integers up to the trillions can be written using Kanji. Western-style Arabic numerals are used more often, however.

The kanji for the digits 1 through 9 (e.g. 一、二、三、…、九)can be used in a positional style with the character 〇 (U+3007). This is particularly true for years: the year 2007 can be written 二〇〇七. The character 〇 is not considered a kanji because it is not composed of straight strokes, but it has been in use in China since the 12th century. Use the romaji zero to type in it using the Mac Hiragana input method. There is a proper kanji for zero: 零 REI zero. It is used by itself but not as a positional digit.

fractions, decimals, and percents

arithmetic expressions

Japanese and Chinese Web Fonts

Kanji are not always drawn in the same manner as the corresponding Chinese characters. In a few cases the stroke counts are different. Because kanji and Chinese characters use the same Unicode points, this can cause problems. Here are three examples with links to the Chinese versions:

直す naosu, naosita fix, repair
写真 syasin photograph, picture, snapshot
具体 gutai concrete, tangible, material

To make sure kanji display correctly, it is best to use a Japanese font. On a Mac one sans-serif choice is Hiragino Kaku Gothic, and a serif choice is Hiragino Mincho. On Windows a sans-serif choice is MS PGothic. Other fonts might be available. Here is a CSS rule which works for a wide variety of operating systems:

font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Helvetica, Arial, "Source Han Sans",
             "源ノ角ゴシック", "Hiragino Sans", "HiraKakuProN-W3",
             "Hiragino Kaku Gothic ProN W3", "Hiragino Kaku Gothic ProN",
             "ヒラギノ角ゴ ProN W3", "Noto Sans", "Noto Sans CJK JP",
             "メイリオ", Meiryo, "游ゴシック", YuGothic, "MS Pゴシック",
             "MS PGothic", "MS ゴシック", "MS Gothic", sans-serif;

Radicals

# radical variants name strokes
1 one 1
2 line 1
3 dot 1
4 丿 乀,乁 slash 1
5 乚,乛 second 1
6 hook 1
7 two 2
8 lid 2
9 man 2
10 legs 2
11 enter 2
12 eight 2
13 down box 2
14 over 2
15 ice 2
16 table 2
17 open box 2
18 knife 2
19 power 2
20 wrap 2
21 spoon 2
22 right open box 2
23 hiding enclo­sure 2
24 ten 2
25 mysti­cism 2
26 seal 2
27 cliff 2
28 private 2
29 again 2
30 mouth 3
31 enclo­sure 3
32 earth 3
33 scholar 3
34 go 3
35 go slowly 3
36 evening 3
37 big 3
38 woman 3
39 child 3
40 roof 3
41 inch 3
42 small 3
43 lame 3
44 corpse 3
45 sprout 3
46 moun­tain 3
47 巛,巜 river 3
48 work 3
49 oneself 3
50 turban 3
51 dry 3
52 short thread 3
53 广 dotted cliff 3
54 long stride 3
55 two hands 3
56 shoot 3
57 bow 3
58 snout 3
59 bristle 3
60 step 3
61 heart 4
62 halberd 4
63 door 4
64 hand 4
65 branch 4
66 rap 4
67 script 4
68 dipper 4
69 axe 4
70 square 4
71 not 4
72 sun 4
73 say 4
74 moon 4
75 tree 4
76 lack 4
77 stop 4
78 death 4
79 weapon 4
80 do not 4
81 compare 4
82 fur 4
83 clan 4
84 steam 4
85 water 4
86 fire 4
87 claw 4
88 father 4
89 double x 4
90 half tree trunk 4
91 slice 4
92 fang 4
93 cow 4
94 dog 4
95 pro­found 5
96 jade 5
97 melon 5
98 tile 5
99 sweet 5
100 life 5
101 use 5
102 field 5
103 bolt of cloth 5
104 sick­ness 5
105 dotted tent 5
106 white 5
107 skin 5
108 dish 5
109 eye 5
110 spear 5
111 arrow 5
112 stone 5
113 spirit 5
114 track 5
115 grain 5
116 cave 5
117 stand 5
118 bamboo 6
119 rice 6
120 silk 6
121 jar 6
122 net 6
123 sheep 6
124 feather 6
125 old 6
126 and 6
127 plow 6
128 ear 6
129 brush 6
130 meat 6
131 minis­ter 6
132 self 6
133 arrive 6
134 mortar 6
135 tongue 6
136 oppose 6
137 boat 6
138 stop­ping 6
139 color 6
140 grass 6
141 tiger 6
142 insect 6
143 blood 6
144 walk enclo­sure 6
145 clothes 6
146 west 6
147 see 7
148 horn 7
149 speech 7
150 valley 7
151 bean 7
152 pig 7
153 badger 7
154 shell 7
155 red 7
156 run 7
157 foot 7
158 body 7
159 cart 7
160 bitter 7
161 morning 7
162 walk 7
163 阝(right) city 7
164 wine 7
165 distin­guish 7
166 village 7
167 gold 8
168 long 8
169 gate 8
170 阝(left) mound 8
171 slave 8
172 short tailed bird 8
173 rain 8
174 blue 8
175 wrong 8
176 face 9
177 leather 9
178 tanned leather 9
179 leek 9
180 sound 9
181 leaf 9
182 wind 9
183 fly 9
184 eat 9
185 head 9
186 fragrant 9
187 horse 10
188 bone 10
189 tall 10
190 hair 10
191 fight 10
192 sacri­ficial wine 10
193 caul­dron 10
194 ghost 10
195 fish 11
196 bird 11
197 salt 11
198 鹿 deer 11
199 wheat 11
200 hemp 11
201 yellow 12
202 millet 12
203 black 12
204 embroi­dery 12
205 frog 13
206 tripod 13
207 drum 13
208 rat 13
209 nose 14
210 even 14
211 tooth 15
212 dragon 16
213 turtle 16
214 flute 17

Phonology

Consonants

bilabial alveolar palatal velar uvular glottal
nasal m n N
unvoiced stop p t k
voiced stop b d g
unvoiced fricative s h
voiced fricative z
liquid r
glide j w

Vowels

front central back
close i u
mid e o
open a

/u/ is pronounced with unrounded lips.

/u/ and /i/ are devoiced (whispered) between unvoiced stops and fricatives.

Accent

A Japanese word can be unaccented or have a single accent on one of its moras. This is realized by a drop in pitch on the mora after the accented mora. When pronounced in isolation, an unaccented word sounds the same as a word accented on its last mora.

accent phrases

Japanese utterances are divided into one or more accent phrases, each which contains at most one accented word. The accent phrase thus at most one accented mora. If the first mora is accented, it has a high pitch, and the remaining moras have a low pitch. Otherwise the first mora is low pitch, the second mora and all moras up to the accented mora are high pitch, and the remaining moras have low pitch.

When an utterance contains multiple accent phrases, the high pitch of each successive accent phrase is generally lower than the high pitch of the accent phrase that immediately preceded it.

  • Can an accent phrase have no accented words?
  • If an accent phrase can have no accented words, how do we know if an accented word should be added to an adjacent accent phrase or form its own accent phrase?
  • Are any aspects of how the moras of an utterance are divided into to accent phrases at the discretion of the speaker?
  • can accent phrases straddle clauses terminated by ga or kedo?
  • can accent phrases straddle phrases terminated by particles such as mo, wa, ga, o?

location of word accent

Pairs of Japanese words exist which are only distinguished by the presence of an accent.

hî (fire) hi (sun, sunshine)
âme (rain) ame (candy)
Hâna (girl's name) hana (nose)

In addition, pairs of Japanese words exist with are distinguished by the location of the accent.

Hâna (girl's name) hanâ (flower)

The presence and location of an accent is thus a property of a lexeme and must be memorized.

Japanese nouns can be accented on any of their final four moras. They can also be unaccented, so an Japanese noun with 3 moras has 4 possible accent patterns. Some patterns are uncommon, however. If we look through the dictionary, we see these frequencies for 3 mora nouns:

antepenult mora penult mora final mora unaccented
frequency 42% 4% 2% 52%

accent of verbs

The imperfect is the usual citation form for Japanese verbs. The conjugation pattern of a verb can be determined by looking at the imperfect and the perfect. Actually, if the imperfect does not end in ~eru or ~iru, the conjugation pattern can be determined from the imperfect alone.

The imperfect is either unaccented or accented on the penultimate mora. If one knows the conjugation pattern of the verb and whether the imperfect is accented, one can predict the accent of the rest of the verb's forms.

Some verbs forms have a fixed accent regardless of the conjugation or whether the imperfect is accented. The distal forms all fall into this category. Verb forms with a fixed accent have accents in their endings below. The consultative form also has a fixed accent.

form ending position when "accented" position when "unaccented"
imperfect -u, (-ru) penultimate none
perfect -ta, (-da) antepenult if ichidan, otherwise penult none
imperfect negative -anai, (-nai) antepenult none
gerund -te, (-de) antepenult if ichidan, otherwise penult none
stem -i, (-∅) penult none
provisional -eba, (-reba) antepenult (same mora as imperfect) penult
conditional -ara, (-tara) same mora as perfect penult
consultative -òo, (-yòo) penult
distal imperfect -imàsu, (-màsu) penult
distal perfect -imàsita, (-màsita) antepenult
distal imperfect negative -imasèn, (-masèn) penult
distal consultative -imasyòo, (-masyòo) penult

accent of adjectives

Like for verbs, the imperfect is the usual citation for adjectives. And also like verbs, the imperfect is either unaccented or accented on the penultimate mora.

compound

The accent of a compound word is not predictable from the accent of its constituents in general. Compounds ending in -gòro and -gùrai have the indicated accent locations, however.

weak accent

Words which lose their accent following an accented word:

  • da
  • daroo
  • datta
  • de
  • desita
  • desu
  • desyoo

When following accented -te style gerund:

  • kudasai

words which induce accent in preceding word

If preceding word is unaccented -te style gerund:

  • kara
  • mo

Also imperfective.

sentence

boundary phrase markers

JSL pp. 14–16

final notes on accent

Increasing the degree of pitch drop at an accent is used for emphasis or to indicate excitement. Conversely in a de-emphasized situation the degree of pitch drop can be so slight so as to barely be perceptible.

Rendaku