boot and shutdown | all applications

finder/explorer | terminal | browser

text mode editor | gui editor | intellij

pdf viewer | kindle | itunes

image editor | vector editor

mathematica | r | spreadsheet


action mac windows ubuntu
launch application ⌘Space Cmd Super
switch application ⌘⇥ Alt+Tab Alt+Tab
switch windows in application ⌘` Alt+Tab
task manager launch Activity Monitor Ctrl+Shift+Esc
maximize window personal binding: ^⌥⌘M Cmd+Up Arrow Ctrl+Cmd+Up Arrow
maximize window to right half personal binding: ^⌥⌘→ Cmd+Right Arrow Ctrl+Cmd+Right Arrow
maximize window to left half personal binding: ^⌥⌘← Cmd+Left Arrow Ctrl+Cmd+Left Arrow
screen capture to file ⇧⌘3 saved to Desktop
select region capture to file ⇧⌘4
show desktop fn F11 Cmd+D
invert/revert screen colors ^⌥⌘8
zoom in ⌘=
zoom out ⌘-
change input method ⌘SPACE conflicts with Spotlight? Cmd+Space
boot and shutdown
mac windows ubuntu
boot setup F2
safe mode shift F8
boot from optical drive C
single user mode ⌘S
verbose boot ⌥⌘V
restart-sleep-shutdown dialog ^Eject
sleep ⌥⌘Eject
display sleep ^⇧Eject
shutdown ^⌥⌘Eject Ctrl+Alt+Delete select power button in lower right
lock screen define a hot corner at:

 System Preferences | Screen Saver
Cmd+L Ctrl+Alt+L
log out ⇧⌘Q Ctrl+Alt+Del
all applications
mac windows ubuntu
close window ⇧⌘W Alt+F4 Alt+F4
new window ⌘N Ctrl+N
select all ⌘A Ctrl+A
copy ⌘C Ctrl+C
cut ⌘X Ctrl+X
paste ⌘V Ctrl+V
paste special (no formatting) ⇧⌥⌘V Ctrl+Alt+V
undo ⌘Z Ctrl+Z
redo ⌘Y Ctrl+Y
close application ⌘Q task manager can be used to close all instances of an application
save ⌘S
save with option to change file name ⇧⌘S Ctrl+S
open ⌘O Ctrl+O
preferences ⌘,
page up fn ↑ fn ↑
page down fn ↓ fn ↓
start of document fn ← fn ←
end of document fn → fn →
select file, edit, view menu ^fnF2 F, ^fnF2 E, ^fnF2 V Alt+F, Alt+E, Alt+V Alt+F, Alt+E, Alt+V
full screen F11
help ⌘? F1
mac windows ubuntu
launch finder/explorer Cmd+E
go up a directory ⌘ Up Arrow Alt+Up Arrow
go down a directory ⌘ Down Arrow Enter
go to folder ⇧⌘G Alt+D (F4 gives dropdown)
go to shell folder Cmd+R shell:startup
back ⌘[ Alt+Left Arrow
forward ⌘] Alt+Right Arrow
new folder ⇧⌘N Alt+F+W+Enter
view as list ⌘2 Alt+V+D
view as cover flow ⌘4
move to trash ⌘⌫ Del (nums lock off)
empty trash ⇧⌘⌫
eject ⌘E push button on tray
expand tree (list mode)
collapse tree (list mode)
rename file Enter
quick look Space
display full filename
goto directory ⇧⌘G
goto file type filename
connect to server ⌘K
toggle display of sidebar ⌥⌘S
display full pathname ⌘-click on title in title bar
terminal ( terminal)
mac windows ubuntu
run command Cmd+R
launch terminal Cmd+X C
launch terminal with admin privilege Cmd+X A
new tab ⌘T Ctrl+Shift+T
close tab ⌘W
switch tabs ⌘{,⌘},⇧⌘ Left Arrow, ⇧⌘ Right Arrow Ctrl+Page Up, Ctrl+Page Down
move current tab Ctrl+Shift+Page Up, Ctrl+Shift+Page Down
copy ⌘C when QuickEdit Mode is checked in the properties, you can select text. To copy, use the dropdown in the upper left
paste ⌘V use dropdown in the upper left
full screen ⌥⌘F
browser (firefox)
mac windows ubuntu
show menu F10
new tab ⌘T Ctrl+T
open link in new tab ⌘ Mouse Click
re-open closed tab ⇧⌘T Safari: ⌘Z Ctrl+Shift+T
switch tabs ^ Tab, ^⇧ Tab
⌥⌘ Right Arrow,⌥⌘ Left Arrow
Safari: ⇧⌘ Right Arrow, ⇧⌘ Left Arrow
switch to tab 1,2,3,... ⌘1,⌘2,⌘3,... Ctrl+1,Ctrl+2,Ctrl+3,...
reload tab ⌘R Ctrl+R
close tab ⌘W Ctrl+W
show/hide tabs Safari: ⌘⇧T
open location ⌘L
open file ⌘O
select search box ⌘K
back ⌘[, ⌘ Left Arrow

Mac supports binding trackpad gestures such as "swipe with 3 fingers left" to this action.
Alt+Left Arrow
forward ⌘], ⌘ Right Arrow

Mac supports binding trackpad gestures such as "swipe with 3 fingers right" to this action.
Alt+Right Arrow
stop ⌘. ESC
zoom in ⌘= Ctrl+=
zoom out ⌘- Ctrl+-
actual size ⌘0
find ⌘F

ESC to dismiss
find next ⌘G, Enter Ctrl+G
find prev ⇧⌘G, ⇧Enter
toggle full screen ⇧⌘F F11
new window ⌘N Ctrl+N
incognito window ⇧⌘P Ctrl+Shift+P
scroll to top ⌘ Up Arrow Home (Nums Lock) Boot Camp: fn Left Arrow
scroll to bottom ⌘ Down Arrow End (Nums Lock) Boot Camp: fn Right Arrow
scroll page down Space Boot Camp: fn Up Arrow
scroll page up ⇧Space Boot Camp: fn Down Arrow
1password login ⌘\ Ctr+\
javascript console ⌥⌘K
In Safari, Develop menu must be enabled in Preferences:
Safari: ⌥⌘C
page source ⌘U Ctrl+U
downloads ⌘J
Safari: ⌥⌘L
history Safari: ⌥⌘2 Ctrl+Shift+H
add-on manager ⇧⌘A
task manager Shift+Esc
<a accesskey="//key//" ^ key
Safari: ^⌥ key
gui editor (text edit/wordpad)
mac windows ubuntu
convert rtf to plain text ⇧⌘T
toggle bold ⌘B Ctrl+B
toggle italic ⌘I Ctrl+I
toggle underline ⌘U Ctrl+U
fonts window ⌘T
increase font size ⌘= Ctrl+Shift+
decrease font size ⌘- Ctrl+Shift+<
toggle superscript Google Docs: ⌘. Ctrl+Shift+=
toggle subscript Google Docs: ⌘, Ctrl+=
align left ⌘{
Google Docs: ⌘⇧L
align right ⌘}
Google Docs: ⌘⇧R
align center ⌘|
Google Docs: ⌘⇧E
zoom in
zoom out ⌘<
actual size ⌘0
mac (Keymap: Mac OS X 10.5+) windows ubuntu
beginning of line ^A
toggles between beginning of line and first non-whitespace character
end of line ^E
goto line ⌘L
type a large number to go to last line?
search in current file ⌘F
page up, page down fn↑, fn↓
select navigation bar
left, right, down arrows have bindings in navigation bar; up, down, ESC have bindings in dropdown
new thing dropdown (with directory selected) ⌘N
goto declaration ⌘B
find in selected path (find | xargs grep) ⇧⌘F
find everywhere ⇧⇧
find usages (with identifier highlighted) ⌥f7
find class ⌘O
find file ⇧⌘O
build application
run application ^⌥R
run tests
reformat code ⌥⌘L
generate getter/setter (with attribute highlighted) ⌘N
rename (with identifier highlighted) ⇧f6
pdf viewer (sumatra pdf/preview)
mac windows ubuntu
toggle full screen ^⌘F Ctrl+Shift+L
enter slide show ⇧⌘F Esc to exit Ctrl+L Esc to exit
hide toolbar |
goto page ⌥⌘G Ctrl+G
goto first page Home (nums lock off)
goto last page End (nums lock off)
continuous scroll mode ⌘1
single page mode ⌘2 Ctrl+6
two side-by-side pages mode ⌘3 Ctrl+7
no side bar ⌥⌘1
thumbnail side bar ⌥⌘2
table of contents side bar ⌥⌘3
thumnail sheet ⌥⌘5
page down document page:
⌥ down arrow
window page:
Fn down arrow
page up document page:
⌥ up arrow
window page:
fn Up Arrow
back ⌘[
forward ⌘]
zoom in ⌘=
zoom out ⌘-
zoom Ctrl+Y
actual size ⌘0 Ctrl+1
fit to page Ctrl+0
fit width Ctrl+2
rotate 90° ⌘L, ⌘R Ctrl+Shift+-, Ctrl+Shift+=
mac windows ubuntu
library ⌥⌘L
navigation sidebar ⌘L
goto location ⌘G
search ⌘F
bookmark ⌘D
sync to furthest page read ⌘R
mac windows ubuntu
play/pause Space Space
prev(beginning) next ⌘ Left Arrow ⌘ Right Arrow Ctrl+Left Arrow Ctrl+Right Arrow
song list/album art icons/cover flow ⌥⌘3/⌥⌘4/⌥⌘5 Ctrl+Shift+3/Ctrl+Shift+4/Ctrl+Shift+5
forward 5s backward 5s ⌥⌘ Right Arrow ⌥⌘ Left Arrow
volume ⌘ Up Arrow ⌘ Down Arrow Ctrl+Up Arrow Ctrl+Down Arrow
toggle visualizer ⌘T Ctrl+T
view options ⌘J Ctrl+J
add to library ⌘O
image editor (photoshop/paint)
mac windows ubuntu
move to right tab ^Tab
move to left tab ⇧^Tab
new tab ⌘N
close tab ⌘W
new layer ⇧⌘N
toggle layer lock ⌘/
toggle layer visibility ⌘,
bring layer up ⌘]
bring layer to top ⇧⌘]
delete layer
free transform ⌘T, followed by right click for distort, warp, rotate, flip, ...
set image size ⌥⌘I Ctrl+W
fit to screen ⌘0
actual pixels ⌘1
vector editor (illustrator/inkscape)
mac windows ubuntu
mac windows ubuntu
stop evaluation ⌘.
new notebook ⌘N
evaluate ⇧Enter
tab complete ⌘K
show function signature ⌘⇧N
radical ^⇧
fraction ^⇧/
superscript ^⇧6 6 is the ^ key
subscript ^⇧_
new cell with same style ⌥Enter
insert math formula in text cell ^⇧(
enter TeX Esc Esc to exit
mac windows ubuntu
open source code in editor ⌘O Ctrl+O
save source code/workspace/image ⌘S depending upon whether editor/console/graphics window has focus; workspace saved as .txt; graphics as PDF Ctrl+S
evaluate selected editor region in console ⌘Enter Ctrl+R
scroll to top fn Left Arrow
scroll to bottom fn Right Arrow End Boot Camp: fn Right Arrow
page up fn Up Arrow PgUp Boot Camp: fn Up Arrow
page down fn Down Arrow PgDn Boot Camp: fn Down Arrow
tile left to right Alt+W V
tile top to bottom Alt+W H
next/previous window Ctrl+Tab
close window ⌘W Ctrl+W
give console window focus ⌘1
give most recent editor window focus ⌘2
give most recent graphics window focus ⌘3
forward/backward in graphics window history ⌘→, ⌘← does not save history
spreadsheet (excel)
mac windows ubuntu
format cell ⌘1
sort ⇧⌘R
toggle display of formulas ^`
page up, page down fn↑, fn↓
move to next nonempty cell in row adjacent to an empty cell ⌘→, ⌘←
move to next nonempty cell in column adjacent to an empty cell ⌘↑, ⌘↓
select to next nonempty cell in row adjacent to an empty cell ⇧⌘→, ⇧⌘←
select to next nonempty cell in column adjacent to an empty cell ⇧⌘↑, ⇧⌘↓
hypervisor (vmware fusion/workstation)
mac windows ubuntu
toggle full screen ^⌘Enter Ctrl+Alt+Enter
machine library ⇧⌘L


The Ubuntu documentation mentions Ctrl, Meta, Super, and Hyper.

By default the Alt and Cmd keys are used for Meta and Super.


Table of keyboard shortcuts (
Keyboard shortcuts for Windows (
Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts (