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クラーク・グラッブ

Verbs 動詞 dousi

politeness

Verbs can be classified as plain or polite. Most verbs are plain. Some verbs have irregular polite alternatives. An honorific polite verb can be constructed using the o + PLAIN STEM + ni + nâru pattern. A humble polite verb can be constructed using the o + PLAIN STEM + suru pattern.

The symbols (↑), (↓), and (+) are used to indicate honorific-polite, humble-polite, and neutral polite verbs.

plain (↑) (↓)
iímàsu osśyarimàsu moósimàsu
ikimâsu irássyaimàsu
oíde ni nàru
maírmàsu
imâsu irássyaimàsu
oíde ni nàru
orímàsu
kimâsu irássyaimàsu
oíde ni nàru
maírmàsu
nomímàsu mesíagarimàsu
onómi ni nàru
itádakimàsu
tabémàsu mesíagarimàsu
otábe ni nàru
itádakimàsu
sirímàsu gogônzi desu zońzimàsu
simâsu nasárimàsu itásimàsu
kureru kureru kudásàru
ageru yaru sasiageru
morau omórai ni nàru itadaku
dèsu (animate) de (i)rássyaimàsu
STEM + masu o + STEM + ni + nâru o + STEM + suru

kureru is used when the out-group gives

ageru is used when the in-group gives

morau is used when the in-group receives

plain (+)
arímàsu gozáimàsu
desu (inanimate) de gozáimàsu

negation

kimâsu 来ます kimásèn 来ません
kimâsita 来ました kimásèn desita 来ませんでした
kûru 来る kônai 来ない
kitâ 来た kônakatta 来なかった

use of the gerund

translation example
please use it tukatte kudasai
it is okay to use it tukatte ii
tukatte ii desu
I'm going to use it tukatte kuru
tukatte kimasu
I used it, then returned home tukatte, sore kara, kaetta
tukatte, sore kara, kaerimasita
I am using it tukatteru (tukatte iru)
tukattemasu (tukatte imasu)
I have come (for verbs representing a change of state) kitêru (kitê iru)
kitêmasu (kitê imasu)

Here are more examples of verbs which take gerunds. The gerund is first, followed by the inflected verb, which is written in kana.

入れておく iret(e) oku put in for future use, put in and leave (it)
付けておく tukêt(e) oku turn on for future use, turn on and leave (it)
しまっておく simatt(e) oku put away for future use, put away and leave (it)
置いていく oite (i)ku leave behind
忘れてします wasurete simau forget completely; end up forgetting
やってしまう yatte simau do completely; end up doing
yattyau do completely; end up doing
貸してあげる kasite ageru lend (to you/him/her/them)
okutte ageru send/send off (for you/him/her/them)
mîte kureru will you/he/she/they look at (for me/us/you)?
直してもらう naôsite morau have [something] fixed
持って行ってもらう mottè (i)tte morau have [something] taken
手伝っていただく tetúdàtte itadaku receive helping, be helped ↓
聞いてみる kiite miru try asking, ask and see

Verbs which can be preceded by gerunds:

  • kuru
  • iku
  • iru
  • aru
  • oku
  • simau
  • kureru/kudasaru
  • ageru/sasiagaru
  • yaru
  • morau
  • itadaku
  • miru

ichidan (one row) verbs

All ichidan verbs have a imperfect form which ends in -eru or -iru. Not all verbs which end in -eru or -iru are ichidan, however.

The distal imperfect of an ichidan verb is derived from the imperfect by replacing the -ru suffix with a -masu suffix.

The perfect of an ichidan verb is derived from the imperfect by replacing the -ru suffix with a -ta suffix.

-iru -eru
imperfect otiru taberu
perfect otita tabeta
gerund otite tabete
distal imperfect otimasu tabemasu
distal perfect otimasita tabemasita
imperfect negative otinai tabenai
imperfect perfect distal imperfect
open (something) ageru 上げる ageta 上げた agémàsu 上げます
open (something) akeru 開ける aketa 開ける akémàsu 開けます
bring together atúmèru 集める atûmeta 集めた atúmemàsu 集めます
become confused, disconcerted, disorganized awateru 慌てる awateta 慌てた awatemasu 慌てます
hand over for temporary keeping; check azúkèru 預ける azûketa 預けた azúkemàsu 預けます
be able; get finished dekîru できる dêkita できた dekímàsu できます
meet; greet demukaeru 出迎える demukaeta 出迎えた demúkaemàsu 出迎えます
go out; come out; leave dêru 出る dêta 出た demâsu 出ます
begin (something) hazimeru 始める hazimeta 始めた hazímemàsu 始めます
suspend; make (a phone call) kakêru かける kâketa かけた kakémàsu かけます
borrow; rent (from someone) kariru 借りる karita 借りた karímàsu 借ります
make tidy, put in order katázukèru 片づける katázùketa 片づけた katázukemàsu 片づけます
go out; become turned off; become extinguished kieru 消える kieta 消えた kiémàsu 消えます
can hear; be audible kikoeru 聞こえる kikoeta 聞こえた kikoemasu 聞こえます
decide (something) kimeru 決める kimeta 決めた kimémàsu 決めます
put into, insert ireru 入れる ireta 入れた irémàsu 入れます
be (animate) iru いる ita いた imâsu います
appear; show up; be visible miêru 見える mîeta 見えた miémàsu 見えます
look at mîru 見る mita 見た mimâsu 見ます
show misêru 見せる mîseta 見せた misemasu 見せます
meet; greet; welcome mukaeru 迎える mukaeta 迎えた mukáemàsu 迎えます
place in line naraberu 並べる narabeta 並べた narábemàsu 並べます
go to sleep; go to bed neru 寝る neta 寝た nemâsu 寝ます
place on [something]; take on board; give a ride noseru 乗せる noseta 乗せた nosémàsu 乗せます
commit to memory; learn by heart obóèru 覚える obôeta 覚えた obóemàsu 覚えます
become late; become delayed okureru 遅れる okureta 遅れた okuremasu 遅れます
descend; get off (a vehicle) orîru 降りる ôrita 降りた orímàsu 降ります
teach osieru 教える osieta 教えた osíemàsu 教えます
get cold samêru 冷める sâmeta 冷めた samémàsu 冷めます
give (↓) sasiageru 差し上げる sasiageta 差し上げた sasíagemàsu 差し上げます
close (something) simêru 閉める sîmeta 閉めた simémàsu 閉めます
look into, investigate, check sirábèru 調べれう sirâbeta 調べれた sirábemàsu 調べれます
go to excess sugiru 過ぎる sugita 過ぎた sugímàsu 過ぎます
throw away suteru 捨てる suteta 捨てた sutémàsu 捨てます
eat tabêru 食べる tâbeta 食べた tabémàsu 食べます
rescue, save tasúkèru 助ける tasúkèta 助けた tasúkemàsu 助けます
stand [something] up, erect [something] tatêru 立てる tâteta 立てた tatémàsu 立てます
bring to a halt tomeru 止める tometa 止めた tomémàsu 止めます
become tired tukárèru 疲れる tukâreta 疲れた tukáremàsu 疲れます
attach (something); turn on tukêru 付ける tukêta 付けた tukémàsu 付けます
take along (people) tureru 連れる tureta 連れた turémàsu 連れます
make oneself understood; get through tuuziru 通じる tuuzita 通じた tuuzimasu 通じます
forget wasureru 忘れる wasureta 忘れた wasúremàsu 忘れます
quit yameru 辞める yameta 辞めた yamémàsu 辞めます
find out; get to know (↓) zonziru 存じる zonzita 存じた zonzimasu 存じます

If the imperfect has an accent, the perfect and gerund will as well. If the imperfect accent is not on the first mora, the perfect and gerund accent may be on the previous mora. The -masu and -masita forms always have the accent on the a in the suffix.

godan (five row) verbs

Verbs which are not ichidan are godan. The exceptions are the five special polite verbs ending in -aru and the irregular verbs iku, kuru, and suru.

In Kodansha's Furigana Japanese Dictionary verbs which end in -eru or -iru are godan if there is a {5} after the entry. Otherwise they are ichidan. Examples of godan verbs with -eru or -iru endings:

  • iru (when it means "need" it is godan; when it means "to be" for inanimate objects it is ichidan)
  • kaeru
  • mairu
  • siru

The distal imperfect of a godan is derived from the imperfect by replaclng the -u suffix with a -imasu suffix.

The consonant (or vowel) before the final -u in the imperfect determines the other verb forms.

-Vu -ku -gu -su -tu -nu -bu -mu -ru
imperfect tigau aruku isogu hanasu matu sinu yobu nomu tukuru
perfect tigatta aruita isoida hanasita matta sinda yonda nonda tukutta
gerund tigatte aruite isoide hanasite matte sinde yonde nonde tukutte
distal imperfect tigaimasu arukimasu isogimasu hanasimasu matimasu sinimasu yobimasu nomimasu tukurimasu
distal perfect tigaimasita arukimasita isogimasita hanasimasita matimasita sinimasita yobimasita nomimasita tukurimasita
imperfect negative tigawanai arukanai isoganai hanasanai matanai sinanai yobanai nomanai tukuranai
imperfect perfect distal imperfect
go up, come up; rise agaru 上がる agatta 上がった agímàsu 上がります
become open aku 開く aita 開いた akímàsu 開きます
wash arau 洗う aratta 洗った aráimàsu 洗います
be (inanimate) âru ある âtta あった arímàsu あります
walk arûku 歩く arûita 歩いた arúkimàsu 歩いきます
come together atúmàru 集まる atúmàtta 集まった atúmarimàsu 集まります
meet, see âu 会う âtta 会った aímàsu 会います
match up with âu 合う âtta 合った aímàsu 合います
accept for temporary keeping azúkàru 預かる azúkàtta 預かった azúkarimàsu 預かります
put out, take out dâsu 出す dâsita 出した dasímàsu 出します
go in, enter hâiru 入る hâitta 入った haírimàsu 入ります
talk; speak hanâsu 話す hanâsita 話した hanásimàsu 話します
let go; unfasten hazusu 外す hazusita 外した hazúsimàsu 外します
pull hiku 引く hiita 引いた hikímàsu 引きます
wipe huku 拭く hutta 拭った hukímàsu 拭きます
go iku 行く itta 行った † ikímàsu 行きます
† If iku were regular the perfect and gerund would be *iita and *iite.
need; be required iru 要る itta 要った irímàsu 要ります
do (↓) itasu いたす itasita いたした itásimàsu いたします
eat; drink; accept (↓) itadaku いただく itadaita いただいた itádakimàsu いただきます
say; be called iu 言う itta 言った iimasu 言います
return kâeru 帰る kâetta 帰った kaérimàsu 帰ります
be required kakâru かかる kakâtta かかった kakárimàsu かかります
write kâku 書く kâita 書いた kakímàsu 書きます
mind, care, be concerned about kamâu 構う kamâtta 構った kamáimàsu 構います
lend; rent (to someone) kasu 貸す kasita 貸した kasimasu 貸します
become tidy, be put in order katázùku 片付く katázùita 片付いた katázukimàsu 片付きます
become dry kawâku 乾く kawâita 乾いた kawákimàsu 乾きます
buy kau 買う katta 買った kaímàsu 買います
undergo change; change places kawaru 変わる kawatta 変わった kawárimàsu 変わります
turn off; extinguish, erase kesu 消す kesita 消した kesímàsu 消します
ask; listen; hear kiku 聞く kiita 聞いた kikímàsu 聞きます
exhaust the supply kirâsu 切らす kirâsita 切らした kirásimàsu 切らします
cut; cut off; hang up kîru 切る kîtta 切った kirimasu 切ります
be upset komâru 困る komâtta 困った komárimàsu 困ります
become stiff kôru 凝る kôtta 凝った korímàsu 凝ります
give me (↑) kudásàru くださる kudásàtta くださった kudásaimàsu くださいます
(something) turns magaru 曲がる magatta 曲がった magárimàsu 曲がります
go (home); come (home) (↓) mâiru 参る mâitta 参った maírimàsu 参ります
wait mâtu 待つ mâtta 待った matímàsu 待ちます
eat; drink; smoke (↑) mesiagaru mesiagatta mesíagarimàsu
see off miokuru 見送る miokutta 見送った miókurimàsu 見送ります
return, go/come back; back up modôru 戻る modôtta 戻った modórimàsu 戻ります
say; be called, be named (↓) môosu もおす môosita もおした moósimàsu もおしtます
receive, accept, get morau moratta moráimàsu
take hold of; take possesion of môtu 持つ môtta 持った motímàsu 持ちます
form a line, get in line narabu 並ぶ naranda 並んだ narábimàsu 並びます
become nâru なる natta なった narímàsu なります
request negau 願う negatta 願った negaimasu 願います
become repaired; recover naôru naôtta naórimàsu
fix, repair naôsu 直す naôsita 直した naosimasu 直します
do (↑) nasâru なさる nasâtta なさった nasárimàsu なさります
put to sleep; lay [something] on its side nekasu 寝かす nekasita 寝かした nekásimàsu 寝かします
drink nômu 飲む nônda 飲んだ nomímàsu 飲みます
get on; board a vehicle; ride noru 乗る notta 乗った norímàsu 乗ります
put, place oku oita okímàsu
send; send off, see off okuru 送る okutta 送った okúrimàsu 送ります
think omôu 思う omôtta 思った omóimàsu 思います
lower; unload; let off (a vehicle) orôsu 下ろす orôsita 下ろした orósimàsu 下ろします
be (animate) (↓) ôru おる ôtta おった orímàsu おります
say; be called (↑) osśyàru おっしゃる osśyàtta おっしゃった osśyarimàsu おっしゃります
become closed simâru 閉まる simâtta 閉まった simárimàsu 閉まります
put away; store simau simatta simáimàsu
find out; get to know siru 知る sitta 知った sirímàsu 知ります
become empty suku suita sukímàsu
smoke suu sutta suímàsu
sit down suwaru 座る suwatta 座った suwárimàsu 座ります
become rescued, become saved tasúkàru 助かる tasúkàtta 助かった tasúkarimàsu 助かります
request, ask for tanômu tanônda tanómimàsu
depart tâtu 立つ tâtta 立った tatímàsu 立ちます
help, lend a hand tetúdàu tetúdàtta tetúdaimàsu
differ tigau 違う tigatta 違った tigáimàsu 違います
come to a halt tomaru 止まる tomatta 止まった tomárimàsu 止まります
take up, take away tôru tôtta torímàsu
use tukau 使う tukatta 使った tukáimàsu 使います
become attached; become turned on tûku 付く tûita 付いた tukímàsu 付きます
arrive tûku 着く tûita 着いた tukímàsu 着きます
make tukûru 作る tukûtta 作った tukúrimàsu 作ります
inquire (↓) ukagau 伺う ukagatta 伺った ukágaimàsu 伺います
sell uru 売る utta 売った urímàsu 売ります
understand wakâru 分かる wakâtta 分かった wakárimàsu 分かります
go over, go across wataru 渡る watatta 渡った watárimàsu 渡ります
hand over watasu 渡す watasita 渡した watásimàsu 渡します
do; give yaru 遣る yatta 遣っ他 yarímàsu 遣ります
rest; take time off yasûmu 休む yasûnda 休んだ yasûmàsu 休ます
call yobu 呼ぶ yonda 呼んだ yobímàsu 呼びます
take pleasure in yorókòbu 喜ぶ yorókònda 喜んだ yorókobimàsu 喜びます
stop in yoru 寄る yotta 寄った yorimasu 寄ります

The godan imperfect, perfect, and gerund forms have the accent in the same place.

The imperfect negative of âru is the irregular form nâi.

five special polite verbs

imperfect perfect gerund distal imperfect imperfect negative
to be (inanimate) (+) *gozâru *gozâtta *gozâtte gozáimàsu *gozáwànai
to give to me (↑) kudásàru kudásàtta kudásàtte kudásaimàsu kudásarànai
to do (↑) nasâru nasâtta nasâtte
to go; come; be (↑) irássyàru irâsita irâsite irássyaimàsu irássyarànai
to say; to be called (↑) ośsyàru ośsyàtta ośsyàtte

*Only distal forms of gozaimasu are used in practice.

The five special polite verbs are usually written using kana. There are kanji for all but irassyaru, however.

two irregular verbs

imperfect perfect gerund distal imperfect imperfect negative
to come kûru 来る kitâ 来た kitê 来て kimâsu 来ます kônai
to do suru する sita した site して simâsu します sinai

verb accent

The imperfect is the usual citation form for Japanese verbs. The conjugation pattern of a verb can be determined by looking at the imperfect and the perfect. If the imperfect does not end in ~eru or ~iru the conjugation pattern can be determined from the imperfect alone.

The imperfect is either unaccented or accented on the penultimate mora. If one knows the conjugation pattern of the verb and whether the imperfect is accented, one can predict the accent of the rest of the verb's forms.

Some verbs forms have a fixed accent regardless of the conjugation or whether the imperfect is accented. The distal forms all fall into this category. Verb forms with a fixed accent have accents in their endings below. The consultative form also has a fixed accent.

form ending position when "accented" position when "unaccented"
imperfect -u, (-ru) penultimate none
perfect -ta, (-da) antepenult if ichidan, otherwise penult none
imperfect negative -anai, (-nai) antepenult none
gerund -te, (-de) antepenult if ichidan, otherwise penult none
stem -i, (-∅) penult none
provisional -eba, (-reba) antepenult (same mora as imperfect) penult
conditional -ara, (-tara) same mora as perfect penult
consultative -òo, (-yòo) penult
distal imperfect -imàsu, (-màsu) penult
distal perfect -imàsita, (-màsita) antepenult
distal imperfect negative -imasèn, (-masèn) penult
distal consultative -imasyòo, (-masyòo) penult

affective verbs

Operational verbs use the ga and o suffix particles.

Affective verbs use two ga suffix particles.

Operational verbs communicate events which happen by volition, whereas affective verbs communicate events outside of immediate human control. Examples of affective verbs:

  • dekimasu
  • irimasu
  • wakarimasu

Adjectives 形容詞 keíyòusi

antonym
îi いい yôku yôkatta warûi 悪い wâruku wârukatta
takâi 高い tâkaku tâkakatta yasûi 安い yâsuku yâsukatta
omósiròi 面白い omósiròku omósiròkatta tumárànai つまらない tumárànaku tumárànakatta
oókìi 大きい ôokiku ôokikatta tiísài 小さい tiísàku tiísàkatta
atárasìi 新しい
wakâi 若い
atáràsiku
wâkaku
atáràsikatta
wâkakatta
hurûi 古い hûruku hûrukatta
muzukasii 難しい muzukasiku muzúkasìkatta yasasii 優しい yasasiku yasásìkatta
kurôi 黒い kûroku kûrokatta sirôi 白い sîroku sîrokatta
oisii おいしい oisiku oísìkatta mazûi まずい mâzuku mâzukatta
osoi 遅い osoku osôkatta hayâi 早い
hayâi 速い
hâyaku hâyakatta
nagâi 長い nâgaku nâgakatta mizíkài 短い mizíkàku mizíkàkatta
atátakài 暖かい 温かい
(attákài)
atátakàku atátakàkatta suzúsìi 涼しい suzûsiku suzûsikatta
atûi 暑い âtuku âtukatta samûi 寒い
tumetai 冷たい
sâmuku
tumetaku
sâmukatta
tumétàkatta
yowâi 弱い yôwaku yôwakatta tuyôi 強い tûyoku tûyokatta
tooi 遠い tooku toôkatta tikâi 近い tikâku tikâkatta
yawárakài 柔らかい yawárakàku yawárakàkatta katai 硬い kataku katâkatta
usui 薄い usuku usûkatta kôi 濃い kôku kôkatta
yorósìi よろしい yorósìku yorósìkatta
abunai 危ない abunaku abúnàkatta
isógasìi 忙しい isógàsiku isógàsikatta
okásìi おかしい okâsiku okâsikatta
kawáìi かわいい kawáìku 井kawáìkatta
aôi 青い âoku âokatta
akai x赤い akaku akâkatta
kiiroi 黄色い kiiroku kiíròkatta
amai 甘い amaku amâkatta
karâi 辛い kâraku kârakatta
súppài 酸っぱい súppàku súppàkatta
itâi 痛い îtaku îtakatta
komákài 細かい komákàku komákàkatta
arígatài ありがたい arígatàku arígatàkatta
mezúrasìi 珍しい mezúràsiku mezúràsikatta
hazúkasìi 恥ずかしい hazúkàsiku hazúkàsikatta

Imperfect and perfect.

negation

takâi desu tâkaku arimásèn
tâkaku nâi desu
takâi tâkaku nai

copula

Loses accent when previous word is accented.

Perfect forms only used with nouns.

imperfect perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
to be dàtta de dèsu dèsita
to possibly be daròo desyòo

modifying nouns

kono, sono, ano

gerund

adjective compounds

kikóenikùi

kikóeyasùi

Adverbs 副詞 hukusi

Nouns 名詞 meisi

の can be used to convert an adjective into a noun: i.e. siroi no "white one".

の can be used to make a noun a modifier of another: kiyoo no sinbun "today's newspaper".

な nouns

Some nouns are followed by な instead of の:

  • bênri
  • damê
  • daizi
  • daizyoobu
  • hên
  • (o)hima
  • hizyou
  • hûben
  • iyâ
  • kêkkoo
  • kenkoo
  • kirai
  • kîree
  • ôoki
  • raku
  • sitûree
  • sukî
  • taisetu
  • tîisa
  • zańnèn

negation

大丈夫です 大丈夫じゃないです
大丈夫でした 大丈夫じゃなかったです

Colors

  • gurêe
  • haiiro
  • gurîin
  • mîdori
  • tyairo

Question Words

  • dare
  • dônata
  • doko
  • donna
  • dono
  • doo
  • dore
  • dotira
  • dotti
  • itu
  • ikura
  • oikura
  • ikutu
  • oikutu
  • nan

Extended Predicate のだ

class distal direct (male) direct (female)
adjectives abúnài n desu abúnài n da abúnài no
verbs iku n desu iku n da iku no
nouns benri na n desu benri na n da benri na no
nominal no

Particles

sentence final

ka, yo, ne, kedo, ga

noun phrase final

ga, o, wa, mo

Some verbs take two ga noun phrase final particles:

  • dekiru, dekite, dekimasu be able
  • iru, itte, irimasu need
  • wakaru, wakatte, wakarimasu understand

Female Speech

For the most part only women use sentence final particles わ, as well as the sentence final particle combinations わよ and わね. わ is a mildly assertive particle that can be used after a direct style verb. It can also be used in place of だ in a direct style nominal predicate sentence.

Numbers

day of month # of days
1 iti hitôtu tuitati itiniti
2 ni hutatu hutuka hutuka
3 san mittu mikka mikka
4 yon (si) yottu yokka yokka
5 go itûtu ituka ituka
6 roku muttu muika muika
7 nana (siti) nanâtu nanoka nanoka
8 hati yattu yooka yooka
9 kyuu (ku) kokônotu kokonoka kokonoka
10 zyuu tôo tooka tooka
11 十一 zyuuiti zyuuitiniti zyuuitiniti
12 十二 zyuuni zyuuniniti zyuuniniti
13 十三 zyuusan zyuusanniti zyuusanniti
14 十四 zyuuyon zyûuyokka zyûuyokka
15 十五 zyuugo zyuugoniti zyuugoniti
20 二十 nizyuu hatuka hatuka
30 三十 sanzyuu sanzyuuniti sanzyuuniti
100 hyaku
1000 sen
10,000 man

classifiers

-satu volumes íssatù, nîsatu, sânsatu, ..., hassatu, ... nânsatu
-mai sheets itîmai, nîmai, sânmai, ... nânmai
-hon long cylindrical objects îppon, nîhon, sânbon, ..., rôppon, ..., hâppon, ..., zyûppon nânbon
-tu inanimate objects hitôtu, hutatu, mittu, ... îkutu
-kai floors ikkai, nikai, sangai, ..., rokkai, nanakai, hakkai, ... nangai
-dai vehicles and machines itîdai, nîdai, sândai, ... nândai
-ken buildings and shops îkken, nîken, sângen,..., rôkken, nanâken, hâkken, ... nângen
-hun counting minutes and naming minute of hour îppun, nîhun, sânpun, yônpun, ..., rôppun, ..., hâppun, ... nânpun
-zi naming the o'clocks itîzi, nîzi, sânzi, yôzi, gôzi, rokûzi, sitîzi, hatîzi, kûzi, zyûuzi nânzi
-zikan 時間 counting hours itizikan, nizikan, sanzikan, ... nanzikan
-ka
-niti
counting days or naming day of month nânniti
-syuukan 週間 counting weeks iśsyùukan, nisyûukan, sańsyùukan, ..., haśsyùukan, ... nańsyùukan
-gatu naming months itígatù, nigátù, sângatu, sigátù, gôgatu, rokúgatù, sitígatù, hatígatù, kûgatu, zyuúgatù nângatu
-kagetu ヶ月 counting months iḱkàgetu, nikâgetu, sańkàgetu, ..., roḱkàgetu, ..., haḱkàgetu, ... nańkàgetu
-nen naming and counting years itînen (gânnen for 1st year of era), nînen, sannen, ... nânnen
-nenkan 年間 counting years
-sai counting years of human age îssai, nîsai, sânsai,yônsai, gôsai, rokûsai, nanâsai, hâssai, kyûusai, zissai nânsai
-ri/-nin counting human beings hitôri, hutárì, sańnìn, yonîn, gonîn, rokûnin,. nanânin, hatînin, kunîn, zyûunin nânnin
-hai counting glassfuls and cupfuls îppai, nîhai, sânbai, yônhai, gohai, rôppai, ..., hâppai/hatîhai, ..., zîppai/zyûppai nânbai
-tyoome 丁目 naming chome ittyoomè, nityóomè, sańtyoomè, ... nańtyoomè
-ninmae 人前 counting portions itininmae, nininmae, sanninmae, ... nanninmae
-goositu 号室 naming room numbers itígòositu, nigôositu, sańgòositu, ... nańgòositu

The hitôtu, hutatu, mittu, ... sequence can be used for years of human age instead of -sai, but hâtati is used for 20 instead of nizyuu.

Most classifiers are used for counting (cardinal) or naming (ordinal) but not both. A cardinal classifier can be converted to an ordinal classifier with the 目(め)suffix, e.g. 一ページ目 the first page. A cardinal classifier can also be converted to an orderinal classifier with the 第(だい)prefix, e.g. 第一冊 the first volume.

Units of Measurement

Metric

m メートル
cm センチメートル センチ
l リットル
g グラム
kg キログラム キロ
km キロメートル キロ

English

pound ポンド
ounce オンス
gallon ガロン
mile マイル
ton トン
inch インチ
feet フィート
acre エーカー

Traditional Length

kanji romaji metric English approx
MOU 0.0303mm
RIN 0.303mm
BU 3.03mm primary on reading for 分 is BUN
SUN 3.03cm inch
SHAKU 30.3cm foot
KEN 1.818m primary on reading for 間 is KAN
hiro 1.818m fathom depth only; primary kun reading for 尋 is tazu(neru)
ZYOU 3.03m
TYOU 109.1m
RI 3.927km league