Japanese

https://mediasite.osu.edu/Mediasite/Catalog/catalogs/fll-japanese

Verbals

copula

direct imperfect direct perfect distal imperfect distal perfect
be datta desu (です) desita (でした)

negation

gerund

The gerund can be used with kudasai to make requests. Ítte kudasai means "Please go!".

"consonant" verbs

The distal imperfect is derived from the direct imperfect by replaclng the -u suffix with a -imasu suffix.

The direct imperfect has one of the following endings: -Cu ending other than -ru; -oru or -uru ending except for the irregular verbs kuru and suru; a -Vu endings; an -aru ending except for five special polite verbs.

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
be (inanimate) âru âtta âtte arimasu arímàsita
walk arûku arukimasu
go iku itte ikimasu
need; be required iru irimasu
eat; drink; accept itadaku itadaite itadakimasu
return kâeru kaerimasu
be required kakâru kakárimàsu
write kâku kakimasu
buy kau katte kaimasu
ask kiku kikimasu
be upset komâru komâtte komárimàsu
(something) turns magaru magarimasu
go (home); come (home) mâiru mairimasu
wait mâtu matimasu
become nâru narimasu
request negau negaimasu
drink nômu nônde nomimasu
be (animate) ôru orimasu
differ tigau tigatte tigaimasu
come to a halt tomaru tomarimasu
use tukau tukatte tukaimasu
make tukûru tukûtte tukurimasu
understand wakâru wakatta wakâtte wakarimasu wakarimasita
inquire ukagau ukagaimasu
call yobu yobimasu

"vowel" verbs

The distal imperfect is derived from the direct imperfect by replacing the -ru suffix with a -masu suffix.

Verbs with -eru and -iru endings can be either "consonant verbs" or "vowel verbs". Which one must be memorized.

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
be able; get finished dekîru dêkite dekímàsu
be (animate) iru imasu
look at mîru mîsete mimasu
show misêru misemasu
teach osieru osiemasu
eat tabêru tâbete tabemasu
bring to a halt tomeru tomemasu
quit yameru yamemasu

five special polite verbs

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
to be (inanimate) gozâru gozáimàsu
to give to me kudásàru kudásàtte kudásaimàsu
to go; come; be irássyàru irássyaimàsu

two irregular verbs

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
to come kûru kitê kimâsu
to do suru site simâsu

Adjectivals

Nominals

Hiragana

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Katakana

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Kanji

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