Japanese

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Verbs

politeness

Verbs can be classified as plain or polite.

The symbols (↑), (↓), and (+) are used to indicate honorific-polite, humble-polite, and neutral polite verbs.

plain (↑) (↓)
ikimâsu irássyaimàsu maírmàsu
imâsu irássyaimàsu orímàsu
kimâsu irássyaimàsu maírmàsu
nomímàsu itádakimàsu
tabémàsu itádakimàsu
plain (+)
arímàsu gozáimàsu

negation

use of the gerund

translation example
please use it tukatte kudasai
it is okay to use it tukatte ii
tukatte ii desu
I'll go and use it tukatte kuru
tukatte kimasu
I used it, then returned home tukatte, sore kara, kaetta
tukatte, sore kara, kaerimasita
I am using it tukutte iru
tukutte imasu

ichidan (one row) verbs

All ichidan verbs have a direct imperfect form which ends in -eru or -iru. Not all verbs which end in -eru or -iru are ichidan, however.

The distal imperfect of an ichidan verb is derived from the direct imperfect by replacing the -ru suffix with a -masu suffix.

The direct perfect of an ichidan verb is derived from the direct imperfect by replacing the -ru suffix with a -ta suffix.

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect direct imperfect negative
be able; get finished dekîru できる dêkita できた dêkite できて dekímàsu できます dekímàsita できました dekinai
go out; come out; leave dêru 出る dêta 出た dête 出て demâsu 出ます demâsita 出ました denai
suspend; make (a phone call) kakêru かける kâketa かけた kâkete かけて kakémàsu かけます kakémàsita かけました kakenai
be (animate) iru ita ite imâsu imâsita inai
appear; show up miêru mîeta mîete miémàsu miémàsita menai
look at mîru 見る mita 見た mite 見て mimâsu mimâsita minai
show misêru 見せる mîseta mîsete misemasu misemasita misenai
become late; become delayed okureru 遅れる okureta 遅れた okurete 遅れて okuremasu 遅れます okuremasita 遅れました okurenai
teach osieru 教える osieta 教えた osiete 教えて osíemàsu 教えます osíemàsita 教えました osienai
eat tabêru 食べる tâbeta 食べた tâbete 食べて tabémàsu 食べます tabémàsita 食べました tabenai
bring to a halt tomeru 止める tometa 止めた tomete 止めて tomémàsu 止めます tomémàsita 止めました tomenai
quit yameru 辞める yameta 辞めた yamete 辞めて yamémàsu 辞めます yamémàsita 辞めました yamenai

If the direct imperfect has an accent, the direct perfect and gerund will as well. If the direct imperfect accent is not on the first mora, the direct perfect and gerund accent will be on the previous mora. The -masu and -masita forms always have the accent on the a in the suffix.

godan (five row) verbs

Verbs which are not ichidan are godan. The exceptions are the five special polite verbs ending in -aru and the irregular verbs iku, kuru, and suru.

In Kodansha's Furigana Japanese Dictionary verbs which end in -eru or -iru are godan if there is a {5} after the entry. Otherwise they are ichidan. Examples of godan verbs with -eru or -iru endings:

  • iru (when it means "need" it is godan; when it means "to be" for inanimate objects it is ichidan)
  • kaeru
  • mairu

The distal imperfect of a godan is derived from the direct imperfect by replaclng the -u suffix with a -imasu suffix.

The consonant (or vowel) before the final -u in the direct imperfect determines the other verb forms.

-Vu -ku -gu -su -tu -nu -bu -mu -ru
direct imperfect tigau aruku isogu hanasu matu sinu yobu nomu tukuru
direct perfect tigatta aruita isoida hanasita matta sinda yonda nonda tukutta
gerund tigatte aruite isoide hanasite matte sinde yonde nonde tukutte
distal imperfect tigaimasu arukimasu isogimasu hanasimasu matimasu sinimasu yobimasu nomimasu tukurimasu
distal perfect tigaimasita arukimasita isogimasita hanasimasita matimasita sinimasita yobimasita nomimasita tukurimasita
direct imperfect negative tigawanai arukanai isoganai hanasanai matanai sinanai yobanai nomanai tukuranai
direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
be (inanimate) âru ある âtta あった âtte あって arímàsu あります arímàsita ありました
walk arûku 歩く arûita 歩いた arûite 歩いて arúkimàsu 歩いきます arúkimàsita 歩きました
need; be required iru 要る itta 要った itte 要って irímàsu 要ります irímàsita 要りました
eat; drink; accept (↓) itadaku いただく itadaita いただいた itadaite いただいて itádakimàsu いただきます itádakimàsita いただきました
return kâeru 帰る kâetta 帰った kâette 帰って kaérimàsu 帰ります kaérimàsita 帰りました
be required kakâru かかる kakâtta かかった kakâtte かかって kakárimàsu かかります kakárimàsita かかりました
write kâku 書く kâita 書いた kâite 書いて kakímàsu 書きます kakímàsita 書きました
mind, care, be concerned about kamâu 構う kamâtta kamâtte kamáimàsu kamáimàsita
buy kau 買う katta 買った katte 買って kaímàsu 買います kaímàsita 買いました
ask kiku 聞く kiita 聞いた kiite 聞いて kikímàsu 聞きます kikímàsita 聞きました
be upset komâru 困る komâtta 困った komâtte 困って komárimàsu 困ります komárimàsita 困りました
(something) turns magaru 曲がる magatta 曲がった magatte 曲がって magárimàsu 曲がります magárimàsita 曲がりました
go (home); come (home) (↓) mâiru 参る mâitta 参った mâitte 参って maírimàsu 参ります maírimàsita 参りました
wait mâtu 待つ mâtta 待った mâtte 待って matímàsu 待ちます matímàsita 待ちました
become nâru なる natta なった natte なって narímàsu なります narímàsita なりました
request negau 願う negatta 願った negatte 願って negaimasu 願います negaimasita 願いました
drink nômu 飲む nônda 飲んだ nônde 飲んで nomímàsu 飲みます nomímàsita 飲みました
be (animate) (↓) ôru おる ôtta おった ôtte おって orímàsu おります orímàsita おりました
differ tigau 違う tigatta 違った tigatte 違って tigáimàsu 違います tigáimàsita 違いました
come to a halt tomaru 止まる tomatta 止まった tomatte 止まって tomárimàsu 止まります tomárimàsita 止まりました
use tukau 使う tukatta 使った tukatte 使って tukáimàsu 使います tukáimàsita 使いました
make tukûru 作る tukûtta 作った tukûtte 作って tukúrimàsu 作ります tukúrimàsita 作りました
understand wakâru 分かる wakâtta 分かった wakâtte 分かって wakárimàsu 分かります wakárimàsita 分かりました
inquire ukagau 伺う ukagatta 伺った ukagatte 伺って ukágaimàsu 伺います ukágaimàsita 伺いました
call yobu 呼ぶ yonda 呼んだ yonde 呼んで yobímàsu 呼びます yobímàsita 呼びました

The godan direct imperfect, direct perfect, and gerund forms have the accent in the same place.

five special polite verbs

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect direct imperfect negative
to be (inanimate) (+) *gozâru *gozâtta *gozâtte gozáimàsu gozáimàsita *gozáwànai
to give to me (↑) kudásàru kudásàtta kudásàtte kudásaimàsu kudásaimàsita kudásarànai
to go; come; be (↑) irássyàru irâsita irâsite irássyaimàsu irássyaimàsita irássyarànai

*Only distal forms of gozaimasu are used in practice.

three irregular verbs

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect direct imperfect negative
go iku 行く itta 行った itte 行って ikímàsu 行きます ikímàsita 行きました ikanai
to come kûru 来る kitâ 来た kitê 来て kimâsu 来ます kimâsita 来ました kônai
to do suru する sita した site して simâsu します simâsita しました sinai

copula

Loses accent when previous word is accented.

Perfect forms only used with nouns.

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
to be dàtta de dèsu dèsita
to possibly be daròo desyòo

affective verbs

Operational verbs use the ga and o suffix particles.

Affective verbs use two ga suffix particles.

Operational verbs communicate events which happen by volition, whereas affective verbs communicate events outside of immediate human control. Examples of affective verbs:

  • dekimasu
  • irimasu
  • wakarimasu

Adjectives

antonym
îi yôku yôkatta warûi wâruku wârukatta
takâi tâkaku tâkakatta yasûi yâsuku yâsukatta
omósiròi omósiròku omósiròkatta tumárànai tumárànaku tumárànakatta
oókìi tiísài
atárasìi hurûi
muzukasii yasasii
kurôi sirôi
oisii mazûi
osoi hayâi
nagâi mizíkài
attákài
atátakài
suzúsìi
atûi samûi
yowâi tuyôi
yorosii
abúnài
isógasìi
kawáìi
wakâi
aôi
akai
kiiroi

Imperfect and perfect.

Negation

Modifying nouns

kono, sono, ano

Question Words

  • dare
  • dônata
  • doko
  • donna
  • dono
  • doo
  • dore
  • dotira
  • dotti
  • itu
  • ikura
  • oikura
  • ikutu
  • oikutu
  • nan

Nouns

の can be used to convert an adjective into a noun: i.e. siroi no "white one".

の can be used to make a noun a modifier of another: kiyoo no sinbun "today's newspaper".

Some nouns are followed by な instead of の:

  • kîree
  • bênri
  • hûben
  • zańnèn
  • damê
  • daizyoobu
  • raku
  • iyâ

Colors

  • gurêe
  • haiiro
  • gurîin
  • mîdori
  • tyairo

Particles

sentence final

ka, yo, ne, kedo, ga

noun phrase final

ga, o, wa, mo

Some verbs take two ga noun phrase final particles:

  • dekiru, dekite, dekimasu be able
  • iru, itte, irimasu need
  • wakaru, wakatte, wakarimasu understand

Hiragana

hiragana.png

Katakana

katakana.png

Kanji

grade 1

kanji_one.png

1
一 hito ITI one
二 huta NI two
三 mi SAN three
四 yon SI four
五 itu GO five
六 mu ROKU six
七 nana SITI seven
八 ya HATI eight
九 kokono KYUU nine
十 too ZYUU ten
百 HYAKU hundred
千 ti SEN thousand
2
日 hi NITI day, sun, Japan
月 tuki GETU moon, month
火 hi KA fire
水 mizu SUI water
木 ki BOKU tree, wood
金 kane KIN metal, gold, money
土 tuti DO soil
3
上 ue ZYOU up
下 sita KA down
右 migi U right
左 hidari SA left
大 oo(kii) DAI big , university
中 naka TYUU middle, in, China
小 tii(sai) SYOU small
入 i(ru) NYUU enter, put in
出 de(ru) SYUTU go out, put out
4
男 otoko DAN man
女 onna JO woman
子 ko SI child, noun suffix
人 hito ZIN human being
口 kuti KOU mouth
目 me MOKU eye, item
手 te SYU hand, performer of an action
耳 mimi ZI ear
足 asi SOKU foot, suffice
5
白 siro HAKU white
赤 aka SEKI red
青 ao SEI blue
学 manu(bu) GAKU study, school
校 KOU school, proofread
先 saki SEN ahead
生 i(kiru) SEI life, be born, student
年 tosi NEN year
6
山 yama SAN mountain
川 kawa SEN river
花 hana KA flower
雨 ame U rain
田 ta DEN rice field
石 isi SEKI stone
貝 kai BAI shellfish
林 hayasi RIN forest
森 mori SIN thick woods
7
見 mi(ru) KEN see
立 ta(tu) RITU stand, establish
休 yasu(mu) KYOU rest
天 ame TEN heaven
気 KI gas, spirit
本 moto HON basis, book, this
犬 inu KEN dog
虫 musi TYUU insect
草 kusa SOU grass
8
車 kuruma SYA vehicle, wheel
名 na MEI name
正 tada(si) SEI right, correct
音 oto ON sound
早 haya(i) SOU early, quick
王 OU king
村 mura SON village
町 mati TYOU town
竹 take TIKU bamboo
9
空 sora KUU sky, air, empty
糸 ito SI thread
字 aza ZI character
夕 yuu SEKI evening
玉 tama GYOKU gem
文 fumi BUN writings, letter
力 tikara RYOKU power
円 maru(i) EN circle, yen

grade 2

joyo_grade2.png


引 hi(ku) IN draw, reduce
羽 ha(ne) U feather, wing
雲 kumo UN cloud
園 sono EN garden
遠 too(i) EN distant
何 nani KA what, how many
科 KA subject of study
夏 natu KA summer
家 ie KA house, family
歌 uta KA song, japanese poem
画 GA picture, draw up a plan
回 mawaru KAI turn round, time
会 au KAI meet, society
海 umi KAI sea
絵 KAI picture
外 soto GAI outside
角 kado KAKU angle, horn
楽 tano(sii) GAKU pleasure, comfortable, music


活 KATU active, live
間 aida KAN space in between
丸 maru GAN round
岩 iwa GAN rock
顔 kao GAN face
汽 KI steam
記 siru(su) KI write down
帰 kae(ru) KI return
弓 yumi KYUU bow (archery)
牛 usi GYUU cow
魚 uo GYO fish
京 KYOU capital, Tokyo, Kyoto
強 tuyo(i) KYOU strong
教 osi(eru) KYOU teach, religion
近 tika(i) KIN near, recent
兄 oni KEI older brother
形 kata KEI shape
計 haka(ru) KEI plan, compute


元 moto GEN origin
言 i(u) GEN say, speech
原 hara GEN plain; original
戸 to KO door, household
古 huru(i) KO old
午 GO noon, sign of the horse
後 noti GO after
語 kata(ru) GO word, language, tell
工 KOU manufacture, construction
公 ooyake KOU public
広 hiro(i) KOU wide
交 mizi(waru) KOU intercourse, cross
光 hika(ru) KOU light
考 kanga(eru) KOU think
行 i(ku) KOU go, act, line
高 taka(i) KOU high, amount
黄 ki KOU yellow
合 a(u) GOU combine, fit


谷 tani KOKU valley
国 kuni KOKU country
黒 kuro KOKU black
今 ima KON present, this
才 SAI talent, years old
細 hoso(i) SAI slender, minute
作 tuku(ru) SAKU make, work
算 SAN calculate
止 to(maru) SI stop
市 iti SI city, market
失 usina(u) SITU lose, slip
姉 one SI older sister
思 omo(u) SI think
紙 kami SI paper
寺 tera ZI Buddhist temple
自 mizuka(ru) ZI self
時 toki ZI time
室 muru SITU room


社 yasiro SYA company, society, Shinto shrine
弱 yowa(i) SYAKU weak
首 kubi SYU head, neck, leader
秋 aki SYUU autumn
週 SYUU week
春 haru SYUN spring
書 ka(ku) SYO write
少 suku(nai) suko(si) SYO few
場 ba SYOU place
色 iru SYOKU color
食 kuu ta(beru) SYOKU eat, food
心 kokoro SIN mind, heart
新 atara(si) SIN new
親 oya SIN parent, relatives, intimate
図 e ZU drawing
数 kazu SOU number
西 nisi SEI west, Spain
声 koe SEI voice


星 hosi SEI star
晴 ha(reru) SEI clear sky
切 ki(ru) SETU cut
雪 yuki SETU snow
船 hune SEN ship
線 suzi SEN line
前 mae ZEN in front, before
組 ku(mu) SO organize, assemble
走 hasi(ru) SOU run
多 oo(i) TA multi-
太 huto(i) TAI great, thick
体 karada TAI body
台 DAI stand, pedestal
地 TI ground, place
池 ike TI pond
知 si(ru) TI wisdom
茶 TYA tea
昼 hiru TYUU daytime


長 naga(i) TYOU long, chief
鳥 tori TYOU bird
朝 asa TYOU morning, dynasty
直 tada(tini) TYOKU straight, put straight
通 too(ru) TUU pass (through), communicate
弟 otouto TEI younger brother
店 mise TEN store, shop
点 tuke(ru) TEN spot, mark
電 DEN electricity
刀 katana TOU sword
冬 fuyu TOU winter
当 ata(ru) TOU the present, hit
東 higasi TOU east
答 kota(eru) TOU answer
頭 atama TOU head
同 ona(zi) DOU same
道 miti DOU way
読 yomu DOKU read


内 uti NAI inside
南 minami NAN south
肉 NIKU flesh
馬 uma BA horse
売 uru GAI sell
買 ka(u) BAI buy
麦 mugi BAKU wheat
半 naka(ba) HAN half
番 tuga(i) BAN turn, number
父 titi HU father
風 kase FUU wind, breeze
分 wakeru BUN part, understand
聞 ki(ku) BUN hear
米 kono BEI meter, rice, USA
歩 aru(ku) HO walk
母 haha BO mother
方 kata HOU direction, way
北 kita HOKU north


毎 -goto MAI every
妹 imooto MAI younger sister
万 yorozu MAN ten thousand
明 o(kari) MEI bright, clear
鳴 na(ku) MEI cry, sound
毛 ke MOU hair
門 kado MON gate
夜 yo YA night
野 no YA field, wild
友 tomo(dati) YUU friend
用 moti(iru) YOU employ, things to do
曜 YOU day of the week
来 ku(ru) RAI come
里 sato RI village, league, ri (3.9 km)
理 kotowari RI reason, basic principle, manage
話 hana(su) WA speak

grade 3

grade3_kanji.jpg


悪 waru(i) AKU bad
安 yasu(i) AN cheap
暗 kura(i) AN dark
医 i(yasu) I medicine, doctor
委 yuda(neru) I commit
意 I mind, meaning
育 soda(tu) IKU raise
員 IN member
院 IN institution
飲 no(mu) IN drink
駅 EKI station
屋 ya OKU house, small shop
化 ba(keru) KA change into
荷 ni KA load
界 KAI world, bounds
開 hira(ku) KAI open


寒 samu(i) KAN cold
起 o(kiru) KI rise
曲 ma(garu) KYOU musical composition, curve
銀 GIN silver
区 KU divide into sections, district, ward


君 kimi KUN ruler, familiar title, you
軽 karu(i) KEI light (i.e. not heavy)
向 mu(ku) KOU turn toward
港 minato KOU port
号 sake(bu) GOU number, designation, sign
仕 tuka(eru) SI serve, do
死 si(ne) SI die
使 tuka(u) SI use


始 hazi(meru) SI begin
事 koto ZI thing, matter
次 tu(gu) ZI next
待 mate TAI wait
者 mono SYA person
主 nesi SYU main, lord
集 atu(maru) SYUU gather


宿 yado SYUKU lodge
暑 atu(i) SYO hot
昭 SYOU invite
真 ma SIN true, reality
世 yo SEI world, age


全 matta(ku) ZEN whole
息 iki SOKU breath
他 hoka TA other
対 aite TAI opposite, oppose
第 DAI ordinal number prefix
短 mizika(i) TAN short
着 ki(ru) TYAKU put on , arrive, stick
注 soso(gu) TYUU pour, concentrate


丁 hinoto TYOU town subsection, miscellaneous counter
追 o(u) TUI chase
庭 niwa TEI courtyard, garden
笛 hue TEKI flute
鉄 kurogane TETU iron
度 tabi DO degree, time
豆 mame TOU bean
島 sima TOU island


発 ta(tu) HATU start, emit, open up
坂 saka HAN slope
美 utuku(sii) BI beautiful
表 omote HYOU express, surface, table
病 ya(mu) BYOU illness
品 sina HIN article; grade of excellence; classification
部 -be BU section, department, part


平 tai(ra) HEI flat, calm
勉 tuto(meru) BEN endeavor
葉 ha YOU leaf


和 yawa(ragu) WA harmonious, peace, Japan

grade 4

kanji_4.png


愛 ito(sii) AI love
英 hanabusa EI distinguished, England


願 nega(u) GAN wish, ask a favor
機 hata KI machine, aircraft, opportunity
議 GI discuss, legislative body


鏡 kagami KYOU mirror, optical intstrument
結 musu(bu) KETU marriage


好 kono(mu) KOU like, favorable
最 motto(mo) SAI most
差 sa(su) SA divergence
札 huda SATU note, paper money
参 mai(ru) SAN participate, visit a holy place
散 ti(ru) SAN scatter


士 SI military man, man of learning
史 SI history
治 osa(meru) ZI govern, cure
辞 ya(meru) ZI word, resign
祝 iwa(u) SYUKU celebrate, congratulate
順 ZYUN order, obey
象 SYOU phenomenon, elephant


信 SIN believe, message
成 na(ru) SEI become, achieve
戦 ikusa SEN war


束 taba SOKU tie up, bundle
側 kawa SOKU side
単 TAN single
的 mato TEKI target, adjectival suffix
典 TEN standard work, canon
伝 tuta(waru) DEN transmit


飛 to(bu) HI fly


便 tato(ri) BEN convenient, postal delivery, excreta
法 nori HOU law, method
無 na(i) MU without, nothing


約 tuzu(maru) YAKU promise, shorten, approximately
要 i(ru) YOU important, summarize, require
利 ki(ku) RI advantage, profit
良 yo(i) RYOU good
冷 tume(tai) REI cold

grade 5

kanji_grade_5.png


桜 sakura OU cherry
可 -geki KA possible, approve


幹 miki KAN trunk
寄 yo(ru) KI contribute, draw near
技 waza GI skill


禁 KIN prohibit


構 kama(eru) KOU construct, mind


術 sugu ZYUTU practical art


舌 sita ZETU tongue
団 katamari DAN collective


張 ha(ru) TYOU spread, strain
版 HAN printing plate, publishing


富 to(mu) HU rich


夢 yume MU dream

grade 6

kanji_grade_6.gif


若 waka(i) ZYAKU young


困 koma(ru) KON be in trouble
供 sona(eru) KYOU offer
尺 SHAKU shaku (30.3 cm)


寸 SUN a bit of, sun (3.03cm)


危 abu(nai) KI dangerous


裏 ura RI rear


晩 BAN evening

grade S

The numbers are from the The Kodansha Kanji Learner's Course

431: 姓 SEI surname
657: 丈 take ZYOU stature, stout
663: 違 tiga(u) I differ, violate
854: 暦 koyomi REKI calendar
1063: 忙 isoga(sii) BOU busy
1144: oku(reru) TI slow, late
1553: 巡 megu(ru) ZYUN make the rounds
1564: 突 totu thrust
1636: 尋 tazu(neru) ZIN inquire
1883: 坊 BOU sonny boy, colloquial person suffix
2082: 鈴 suzu REI bell
2242: 厘 RIN rin (0.001 yen)
2275: 駄 DA good for nothing, clogs

Numbers

day of month # of days
1 iti hitôtu tuitati itiniti
2 ni hutatu hutuka hutuka
3 san mittu mikka mikka
4 yon (si) yottu yokka yokka
5 go itûtu ituka ituka
6 roku muttu muika muika
7 nana (siti) nanâtu nanoka nanoka
8 hati yattu yooka yooka
9 kyuu (ku) kokônotu kokonoka kokonoka
10 zyuu tôo tooka tooka
11 十一 zyuuiti zyuuitiniti zyuuitiniti
12 十二 zyuuni zyuuniniti zyuuniniti
13 十三 zyuusan zyuusanniti zyuusanniti
14 十四 zyuuyon zyûuyokka zyûuyokka
15 十五 zyuugo zyuugoniti zyuugoniti
20 二十 nizyuu hatuka hatuka
30 三十 sanzyuu sanzyuuniti sanzyuuniti
100 hyaku
1000 sen
10,000 man

classifiers

-satu volumes íssatù, nîsatu, sânsatu, …, hassatu, … nânsatu
-mai sheets itîmai, nîmai, sânmai, … nânmai
-hon long cylindrical objects îppon, nîhon, sânbon, …, rôppon, …, hâppon, …, zyûppon nânbon
-tu inanimate objects hitôtu, hutatu, mittu, … îkutu
-kai floors ikkai, nikai, sangai, …, rokkai, nanakai, hakkai, … nangai
-dai vehicles and machines itîdai, nîdai, sândai, … nândai
-ken buildings and shops îkken, nîken, sângen,…, rôkken, nanâken, hâkken, … nângen
-hun counting minutes and naming minute of hour îppun, nîhun, sânpun, yônpun, …, rôppun, …, hâppun, … nânpun
-zi naming the o'clocks itîzi, nîzi, sânzi, yôzi, gôzi, rokûzi, sitîzi, hatîzi, kûzi, zyûuzi nânzi
-zikan 時間 counting hours itizikan, nizikan, sanzikan, … nanzikan
-ka
-niti
counting days or naming day of month nânniti
-syuukan 週間 counting weeks iśsyùukan, nisyûukan, sańsyùukan, …, haśsyùukan, … nańsyùukan
-gatu naming months itígatù, nigátù, sângatu, … nângatu
-kagetu ヶ月 counting months iḱkàgetu, nikâgetu, sańkàgetu, …, roḱkàgetu, …, haḱkàgetu, … nańkàgetu
-nen naming and counting years itînen (gânnen for 1st year of era), nînen, sannen, … nânnen
-nenkan 年間 counting years
-sai counting years of human age îssai, nîsai, sânsai,yônsai, gôsai, rokûsai, nanâsai, hâssai, kyûusai, zissai nânsai

The hitôtu, hutatu, mittu, … sequence can be used for years of human age instead of -sai, but hâtati is used for 20 instead of nizyuu.

Units of Measurement

Metric

m メートル
cm センチメートル センチ
l リットル
g グラム
kg キログラム キロ
km キロメートル キロ

English

pound ポンド
ounce オンス
gallon ガロン
mile マイル
ton トン
inch インチ
feet フィート
acre エーカー

Traditional Length

kanji romaji metric English approx
MOU 0.0303mm
RIN 0.303mm
BU 3.03mm primary on reading for 分 is BUN
SUN 3.03cm
SHAKU 30.3cm foot
KEN 1.818m primary on reading for 間 is KAN
hiro 1.818m fathom depth only; primary kun reading for 尋 is tazu(neru)
ZYOU 3.03m
TYOU 109.1m
RI 3.927km league

Names

Japanese Family Names 日本の姓

山本 Yamamoto
鈴木 Suzuki
佐藤 Satoo
田中 Tanaka
中村 Nakamura
西田 Nîsida
西坂 Nisîzaka
木村 Kimura
宮地 Mîyazi
Kodama
Nakada
Sugiura
Yosida
Noguti

Districts in Tokyo

上野 Ueno
虎ノ門 Toranomon
目白 Mêziro
銀座 Ginza

Japanese Cities 日本の都市

東京 Tookyoo
京都 Kyôoto
名古屋 Nâgoya
札幌 Sapporo
横浜 Yokohama
大阪 Oosaka
神戸 Kôobe
福岡 Hukûoka

Japanese Islands 日本の島々

北海道 Hókkàido
九州 Kyûusyuu
本州 Hônsyuu
四国 Sikôku

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