Japanese

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Verbs

negation

use of the gerund

translation example
please use it tukatte kudasai
it is okay to use it tukatte ii
tukatte ii desu
I'll go and use it tukatte kuru
tukatte kimasu
I used it, then returned home tukatte, sore kara, kaetta
tukatte, sore kara, kaerimasita
I am using it tukutte iru
tukutte imasu

"consonant" verbs

The distal imperfect is derived from the direct imperfect by replaclng the -u suffix with a -imasu suffix.

The direct imperfect has one of the following endings: -Cu ending other than -ru; -oru or -uru ending except for the irregular verbs kuru and suru; a -Vu endings; an -aru ending except for five special polite verbs.

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
be (inanimate) âru âtta âtte arímàsu arímàsita
walk arûku arukimasu
go iku itta itte ikímàsu ikímàsita
need; be required iru itta itte irímàsu irímàsita
eat; drink; accept itadaku itadaita itadaite itádakimàsu itádakimàsita
return kâeru kaerimasu
be required kakâru kakárimàsu
write kâku kâita kâite kákimàsu kákimàsita
buy kau 買う katta 買った katte 買って kaímàsu 買います kaímàsita 買いました
ask kiku kikimasu
be upset komâru komâtta komâtte komárimàsu komárimàsita
(something) turns magaru magarimasu
go (home); come (home) mâiru mairimasu
wait mâtu 待つ mâtta 待った mâtte 待って matímàsu 待ちます matímàsita 待ちました
become nâru narimasu
request negau negaimasu
drink nômu nônda nônde nomímàsu nomímàsita
be (animate) ôru orimasu
differ tigau tigatta tigatte tigáimàsu tigáimàsita
come to a halt tomaru tomarimasu
use tukau tukatte tukaimasu
make tukûru tukûtta tukûtte tukúrimàsu tukúrimàsita
understand wakâru 分かる wakâtta 分かった wakâtte 分かって wakárimàsu 分かります wakárimàsita 分かりました
inquire ukagau ukagatta ukagatte ukágaimàsu ukágaimàsita
call yobu 呼ぶ yonda yonde yobímàsu yobímàsita

"vowel" verbs

The distal imperfect is derived from the direct imperfect by replacing the -ru suffix with a -masu suffix.

Verbs with -eru and -iru endings can be either "consonant verbs" or "vowel verbs". Which one must be memorized.

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
be able; get finished dekîru dêkite dêkite dekímàsu dekímàsita
be (animate) iru ita ite imâsu imâsita
look at mîru 見る mita 見た mite 見て mimâsu mimâsita
show misêru 見せる mîseta mîsete misemasu misemasita
teach osieru osiemasu
eat tabêru tâbeta tâbete tabémàsu tabémàsita
bring to a halt tomeru tomemasu
quit yameru yamemasu

five special polite verbs

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
to be (inanimate) gozâru gozâtta gozâtte gozáimàsu gozáimàsita
to give to me kudásàru kudásàtta kudásàtte kudásaimàsu kudásaimàsita
to go; come; be irássyàru irâsita irâsite irássyaimàsu irássyaimàsita

Only distal forms of gozaimasu are used in practice.

two irregular verbs

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
to come kûru 来る kitâ 来た kitê 来て kimâsu 来ます kimâsita 来ました
to do suru する sita した site して simâsu します simâsita しました

copula

Loses accent when previous word is accented.

Perfect forms only used with nouns.

direct imperfect direct perfect gerund distal imperfect distal perfect
to be dàtta de dèsu dèsita
to possibly be daròo desyòo

Adjectives

Imperfect and perfect.

Negation

Modifying nouns

kono, sono, ano

Nouns

の can be used to convert an adjective into a noun: i.e. siroi no "white one".

の can be used to make a noun a modifier of another: kiyoo no sinbun "yesterday's newspaper".

Some nouns are followed by な instead of の:

  • kîree
  • bênri
  • hûben
  • zańnèn
  • damê
  • daizyoobu

Particles

sentence final

ka, yo, ne, kedo, ga

noun phrase final

ga, o, wa, mo

Some verbs, such as iru, irimasu take two ga noun phrase final particles.

Hiragana

hiragana.png

Katakana

katakana.png

Kanji

grade 1

kanji_one.png

1
一 hito ITI one
二 huta NI two
三 mi SAN three
四 yon SI four
五 itu GO five
六 mu ROKU six
七 nana SITI seven
八 ya HATI eight
九 kokono KYUU nine
十 too ZYUU ten
百 HYAKU hundred
千 ti SEN thousand
2
日 hi NITI day, sun, Japan
月 tuki GETU moon, month
火 hi KA fire
水 mizu SUI water
木 ki BOKU tree, wood
金 kane KIN metal, gold, money
土 tuti DO soil
3
上 ue ZYOU up
下 sita KA down
左 hidari SA left
右 migi U right
大 oo(kii) DAI big , university
中 naka TYUU middle, in, China
小 tiisai SYOU small
入 i(ru) NYUU enter, put in
出 de(ru) SYUTU go out, put out
4
男 otoko DAN man
女 onna JO woman
子 ko SI child, noun suffix
人 hito ZIN human being
口 kuti KOU mouth
目 me MOKU eye, item
手 te SYU hand, performer of an action
耳 mimi ZI ear
足 asi SOKU foot, suffice
5
白 siro HAKU white
赤 aka SEKI red
青 ao SEI blue
学 manu(bu) GAKU study, school
校 KOU school, proofread
先 saki SEN ahead
生 i(kiru) SEI life, be born, student
年 tosi NEN year
6
山 yama SAN mountain
川 kawa SEN river
花 hana KA flower
雨 ame U rain
田 ta DEN rice field
石 isi SEKI stone
貝 kai BAI shellfish
林 hayasi RIN forest
森 mori SIN thick woods
7
見 mi(ru) KEN see
立 ta(tu) RITU stand, establish
休 yasu(mu) KYOU rest
天 ame TEN heaven
気 KI gas, spirit
本 moto HON basis, book, this
犬 inu KEN dog
虫 musi TYUU insect
草 kusa SOU grass
8
車 kuruma SYA vehicle, wheel
名 na MEI name
正 tada(si) SEI right, correct
音 oto ON sound
早 haya(i) SOU early, quick
王 OU king
村 mura SON village
町 mati TYOU town
竹 take TIKU bamboo
9
空 sora KUU sky, air, empty
糸 ito SI thread
字 aza ZI character
夕 yuu SEKI evening
玉 tama GYOKU gem
文 fumi BUN writings, letter
力 tikara RYOKU power
円 maru(i) EN circle, yen

grade 2

joyo_grade2.png


引 hi(ku) IN draw, reduce
羽 ha(ne) U feather, wing
雲 kumo UN cloud
園 sono EN garden
遠 too(i) EN distant
何 nani KA what, how many
科 KA subject of study
夏 natu KA summer
家 ie KA house, family
歌 uta KA song, japanese poem
画 GA picture, draw up a plan
回 mawaru KAI turn round, time
会 au KAI meet, society
海 umi KAI sea
絵 KAI picture
外 soto GAI outside
角 kado KAKU angle, horn
楽 tano(sii) GAKU pleasure, comfortable, music


活 KATU active, live
間 aida KAN space in between
丸 maru GAN round
岩 iwa GAN rock
顔 kao GAN face
汽 KI steam
記 siru(su) KI write down
帰 kae(ru) KI return
弓 yumi KYUU bow (archery)
牛 usi GYUU cow
魚 uo GYO fish
京 KYOU capital, Tokyo, Kyoto
強 tuyo(i) KYOU strong
教 osi(eru) KYOU teach, religion
近 tika(i) KIN near, recent
兄 oni KEI older brother
形 kata KEI shape
計 haka(ru) KEI plan, compute


元 moto GEN origin
言 i(u) GEN word, say
原 hara GEN plain; original
戸 to KO door, household
古 huru(i) KO old
午 uma GO noon, sign of the horse
後 noti GO back, behind, later
語 kata(ru) GO language, word
工 KOU manufacture, construction
公 ooyake KOU public
広 hiro(i) KOU wide
交 kizi(waru) KOU intercourse, cross
光 hikaru KOU light
考 kanga(eru) KOU think, consider
行 i(ku) KOU line, row, go
高 taka(i) KOU expensive
黄 ki KOU yellow
合 a(u) GOU combine, fit


谷 tani KOKU valley
国 kuni KOKU country
黒 kuru KOKU black
今 ima KON now
才 SAI talent, years old
細 hoso(i) SAI slender, minute
作 tuku(ru) SAKU make
止 tomaru SI stop
市 iti SI city (suffix)
失 usina(u) SITU lose
姉 one SI older sister
寺 tera ZI temple
自 mizuka(ru) ZI self


書 ka(ku) SYO write
少 suku(nai) suko(si) SYO few
色 iru SYOKU color
心 kokoro SIN mind, heart
新 atara(si) SIN new
数 kazu SOU number
西 nisi SEI west, Spain


雪 yuki SETU snow
前 mae ZEN in front, before
多 oo(i) TA multi-
体 karada TAI body
台 DAI stand, pedestal
地 TI ground, place
池 ike TI pond
知 si(ru) TI wisdom
茶 TYA tea


長 naga(i) TYOU long, chief
直 tada(tini) TYOKU straight, put straight
店 mise TEN store, shop
点 tuke(ru) TEN spot, mark
冬 fuyu TOU winter
東 higasi TOU east
頭 atama TOU head
同 ona(zi) DOU same, equal
道 miti DOU way


内 uti NAI inside
肉 sisi NIKU flesh
売 uru GAI sell
買 ka(u) BAI buy
番 tuga(i) BAN turn, number
父 titi HU father
風 kase FUU wind, breeze
分 wakeru BUN part, understand
番 tuga(i) BAN turn, number
米 kono BEI meter, rice, USA
方 kata HOU direction, way
北 kita HOKU north


毎 goto MAI every
万 yorozu MAN ten thousand
明 okari MEI bright
友 tomo(dati) YUU friend
用 moti(iru) YOU business, use, purpose
曜 YOU day of the week
来 ku(ru) RAI come, next

grade 3

grade3_kanji.jpg


安 yasu(i) AN cheap
駅 EKI station
化 ba(keru) KA change into


区 KU divide into sections, district, ward


使 tuka(u) SI use


次 tu(gu) ZI next
待 mate TAI wait
者 mono SYA person
主 nesi SYU main, lord


暑 atu(i) SYO hot


全 matta(ku) ZEN whole
他 hoka TA other
着 ki(ru) TYAKU put on , arrive, stick
注 soso(gu) TYUU pour, concentrate


丁 hinoto TYOU town subsection, miscellaneous counter
追 o(u) TUI chase
度 tabi DO degree, time
豆 mame TOU bean


美 utuku(sii) BI beautiful
品 sina HIN article; grade of excellence; classification
部 -be BU section, department, part


葉 ha YOU leaf

grade 4

kanji_4.png


議 GI discuss, legislative body


結 musu(bu) KETU marriage


札 huda SATU note, paper money


士 SI military man, man of learning
祝 iwa(u) SYUKU celebrate, congratulate
順 ZYUN order, obey


戦 ikusa SEN war


伝 tuta(waru) DEN transmit


便 tato(ri) BEN convenient, postal delivery, excreta
法 nori HOU law, method


要 i(ru) YOU important, summarize, require
利 ki(ku) RI advantage, profit
良 yo(i) RYOU good

JSL Chapter 1

分かります wakarimasu
今日 kyoo
する suru
違う tigau
明日 ashita
作る tukuru
昨日 kinoo
出来る dekiru
来る kuru
飲む nomu
行く iku
頂きます itadakimasu
良い ii
高い takai
安い yasui
大きい large
新しい atarasii
古い hurui
面白い omosiroi
困る komaru
つまらない tumaranai
買 kau buy

JSL Chapter 2

何 nan
手紙 tegami
電話 denwa
どう doo
だめ dame
大丈夫 daizyoobu
日本語 nihongo
国語 kokugo
英語 eego
中国語 tyuugokugo
きれい kiree
残念 zannen
東京 Tookyoo
京都 Kyooto
どれ dore
これ kore
本 hon
雑誌 zassi
新聞 sinbun
辞書 zisyo
私 watasi
僕 boku
貴方 anata
誰 dare
幾ら ikura
本当 hontoo
先生 sensee
学生 student
友達 tomodati

JSL Chapter 3

番 -BAN
一昨日 ototoi
茶 TYA
使う tukau
難しい muzukasii (gr6)
優しい yasasii (gr6)
全然 zenzen
万 yorozu MAN ten thousand
全部 zenbu
いつ itu
会議 kaigi
ほとんど hotondo
やっぱり yappari
やぱり yapari

JSL Chapter 4

風呂敷 hurosiki
便利 benri
不便 huben
下さい kudasai
なかなか nakanaka
黒い kuroi
青い aoi
赤い akai
黄色い kiiroi
白い siroi
傘 kasa
見せます misemasu
雨 ame
雪 yuki
五冊 go-satu five volumes
五枚 go-mai five sheets
五本 go-hon five long, cylindrical objects
封筒 huutoo
鉛筆 enpitu
少々 syoosyoo
ちょうど tyoodo just, exactly
同じ onazi same
毎度 maido
お釣り oturi
また mata
紙 kamî paper
便箋 binsen

JSL Chapter 5

もっと more
要ります irimasu /itte/ need, want; be required, be wanted
だけ dakê just (follows nominal)
ございます polite form of あります
たくさん many, much
他 hoka other, another
kaban bag, briefcase
みんな all
直ぐ sûgu soon, promptly
少し sukôsi a small amount, a few
みんな mińnà all (everything or everyone)
新聞 sinbun newspaper
車 kuruma car
見ます mimâsu look at, see
自転車 zitênsya bicycle
灰色 haiiro gray
緑 mîdori green
茶色 tyairo brown
色 irô color
紅茶 kootya black tea
酒 sake
宜しい yorosii is good, is fine; never mind

JSL Chapter 6

伺います ukagaimasu ask, inquire
上野 Ueno
駅 eki station
方 hôo direction, way, side; alternative
先 saki ahead
ビル bîru building
辺 hen area, vicinity
道 miti street, road
向こう mukoo over there; beyond
売店 baiten concession stand, kiosk
店 mise shop, store
出口 dêguti exit
入口 iriguti entrance
間 aida interval, space between
前 mâe front; in front
公衆 koosyuu public
交番 kooban
後ろ usiro back; in back, behind
手洗い teârai hand wash (euphemism for toilet)
大使館 taísìkan embassy
そば nearby
すぐそば immediate vicinity
向こう側 mukoogawa opposite side, the other side
図書館 tosyôkan library
建物 tatêmono building
隣 (o)tonari next door, adjoining place
左 hidari left
左隣 hidáridònari next door on the left
右 migi right
お世話様 osewasama (thank you for) your helpful assistance
旅館 ryokan Japanese-style inn
ホテル hôteru hotel
領事館 ryoózìkan consulate
郵便局 yuúbìnkyoku post office
劇場 gekizyoo theater
映画館 eégàkan movie theater
公園 kooen park
病院 byooin hospital
寺 terâ Buddhist temple
神社 zinzya Shinto shrine
協会 kyookai church

Numbers

1 iti hitôtu
2 ni hutatu
3 san mittu
4 yon (shi) yottu
5 go itûtu
6 roku muttu
7 nana (shichi) nanatu
8 hati yattu
9 kyuu (ku) kokônotu
10 juu tôo
13 十三 juusan
30 三十 sanjuu
100 hyaku
1000 sen
10,000 man

classifiers

-satu volumes issatu, nisatu, …, hassatu, … nansatu
-mai sheets
-hon long cylindrical objects
-tu other inanimate objects
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