Fantasy

Epic of Gilgamesh

1800 BCE - 900 BCE

Five Sumerian poems about "Bilgamesh" have been recovered from remains of the third dynasty of Ur (2100 BCE).

The Epic of Gilgamesh is known in two versions. The Old Babylonian version (c 1800 BCE) starts with the phrase Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings").

The Standard Version (1300 BCE - 900 BCE) starts with the phrase Sha naqba īmuru ("He who Saw the Deep"). About two-thirds of the standard version have been preserved.

A few stories from the Epic of Gilgamesh re-appear in the Old Testament. In particular, the Garden of Eden, where Adam and Eve correspond to Enkidu and Shamhat, and the flood, where Noah corresponds with Utnapishtim. Also the advice in Ecclesiastes resembles the advice given by Siduri.

Book of the Dead

1550 BCE

Rig Veda

1200 BCE - 900 BCE

Gathas

900 BCE - 600 BCE

Pentateuch

900 BCE - 400 BCE

The first five books of the Old Testament are known as the Torah ("teaching") in Jewish tradition. The name Pentateuch derives from the Greek phrase "five scrolls".

The names of the five books are

  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy

The books are traditionally ascribed to Moses. The book of Deuteronomy describes the death of Moses, however.

The documentary hypothesis, which was first proposed in the 19th century, identifies five different authors of the work, the Jahwist (J), Elohimist (E), Priest (P), Deuteronomist (D), and the Redactor (R).

Iliad

800 BCE - 700 BCE

Odyssey

800 BCE - 700 BCE

Theogony

725 BCE

Works and Days

725 BCE

Aesop's Fables

600 BCE - 564 BCE

Aeschylus

472 BCE - 458 BCE

Sophocles

470 BCE - 405 BCE

Euripides

455 BCE - 408 BCE

Aeneid

29 BCE - 19 BCe

Odes

23 BCE - 13 BCE

Metamorphoses

8 CE

Gospels

65 CE - 110 CE

Beowulf

700-1000

Thousand and One Nights

700-1300

The Táin

c. 1000

Song of Roland

1040 - 1115

Mabinogion

1100-1300

The Poem of the Cid

1140 - 1207

Nibelungunlied

1180 - 1210

Tristan and Iseult

1210

Tristan and Iseult, and influence on Arthurian cycle.

Parzival

1210

After Historia Regum Britanniae (1136), the "Matter of Britain" was expanded upon by Chétien de Troyes, who developed the story of Lancelot in "Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart" (1177-1181) and the unfinished "Perceval, the Story of the Grail" (1181-1190).

Prose Edda

1220

Roman de la Rose

1230, 1275

Inferno

c. 1300

Decameron

1353

Canterbury Tales

1386-1400

Morte D'Arthur

1460-1470, 1485

The Arthurian cycle got a boost from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae (1136), which recounts a list of kings of Britain from Brutus "a grandson or great grandson of Aeneas", through Leir (i.e. Shakespeare's King Lear), to kings which pay tribute to Rome, to Vortigern, who invites the Saxons to island as mercenaries and is betrayed, to Uther Pendragon and Arthur, and the last Briton king Cadwallader.

Even in medieval times, there were those who disregarded the HRB as invention, but the book was popular up to around 1600.

GM was born in Wales, but it is not clear that he knew Welsh. Some of his material was drawn from Historia Brittonum (829)

Orlando Furioso

1516, 1536

Gargantua and Pantagruel

1532-1564

Os Lusíades

1572

Jerusalem Delivered

1581

Faerie Queene

1590, 1596

Shakespeare

1589-1613

Don Quixote

1605, 1615

Paradise Lost

1667, 1674

Fables of Fontaine

1668-1694

Robinson Crusoe

1719

Gulliver's Travels

1726, 1735

Julie, or the New Heloise

1761

Tristram Shandy

1767

Baron Munchausen

1785

Grimm's Fairy Tales

1812

Faust

1806, 1831

The Nutcracker and the Mouse King

1816

Frankenstein

1818

Fairy Tales Told for Children

1835, 1837

Journey to the Center of the Earth

1864

The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

1886

The Time Machine

1895

Dracula

1897

The Wind in the Willows

1908

Die Verwandlung

1912

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